26 Containers library [containers]

26.2 Container requirements [container.requirements]

26.2.6 Associative containers [associative.reqmts]

Associative containers provide fast retrieval of data based on keys.
The library provides four basic kinds of associative containers: set, multiset, map and multimap.
Each associative container is parameterized on Key and an ordering relation Compare that induces a strict weak ordering on elements of Key.
In addition, map and multimap associate an arbitrary mapped type T with the Key.
The object of type Compare is called the comparison object of a container.
The phrase “equivalence of keys” means the equivalence relation imposed by the comparison and not the operator== on keys.
That is, two keys k1 and k2 are considered to be equivalent if for the comparison object comp, comp(k1, k2) == false && comp(k2, k1) == false.
For any two keys k1 and k2 in the same container, calling comp(k1, k2) shall always return the same value.
An associative container supports unique keys if it may contain at most one element for each key.
Otherwise, it supports equivalent keys.
The set and map classes support unique keys; the multiset and multimap classes support equivalent keys.
For multiset and multimap, insert, emplace, and erase preserve the relative ordering of equivalent elements.
For set and multiset the value type is the same as the key type.
For map and multimap it is equal to pair<const Key, T>.
iterator of an associative container is of the bidirectional iterator category.
For associative containers where the value type is the same as the key type, both iterator and const_­iterator are constant iterators.
It is unspecified whether or not iterator and const_­iterator are the same type.
[Note
:
iterator and const_­iterator have identical semantics in this case, and iterator is convertible to const_­iterator.
Users can avoid violating the one-definition rule by always using const_­iterator in their function parameter lists.
end note
]
The associative containers meet all the requirements of Allocator-aware containers, except that for map and multimap, the requirements placed on value_­type in Table 75 apply instead to key_­type and mapped_­type.
[Note
:
For example, in some cases key_­type and mapped_­type are required to be CopyAssignable even though the associated value_­type, pair<const key_­type, mapped_­type>, is not CopyAssignable.
end note
]
In Table 82, X denotes an associative container class, a denotes a value of type X, a2 denotes a value of a type with nodes compatible with type X (Table 81), b denotes a possibly const value of type X, u denotes the name of a variable being declared, a_­uniq denotes a value of type X when X supports unique keys, a_­eq denotes a value of type X when X supports multiple keys, a_­tran denotes a possibly const value of type X when the qualified-id X​::​key_­compare​::​is_­transparent is valid and denotes a type ([temp.deduct]), i and j satisfy input iterator requirements and refer to elements implicitly convertible to value_­type, [i, j) denotes a valid range, p denotes a valid constant iterator to a, q denotes a valid dereferenceable constant iterator to a, r denotes a valid dereferenceable iterator to a, [q1, q2) denotes a valid range of constant iterators in a, il designates an object of type initializer_­list<value_­type>, t denotes a value of type X​::​value_­type, k denotes a value of type X​::​key_­type and c denotes a possibly const value of type X​::​key_­compare; kl is a value such that a is partitioned ([alg.sorting]) with respect to c(r, kl), with r the key value of e and e in a; ku is a value such that a is partitioned with respect to !c(ku, r); ke is a value such that a is partitioned with respect to c(r, ke) and !c(ke, r), with c(r, ke) implying !c(ke, r).
A denotes the storage allocator used by X, if any, or allocator<X​::​value_­type> otherwise, m denotes an allocator of a type convertible to A, and nh denotes a non-const rvalue of type X​::​node_­type.
Table 82 — Associative container requirements (in addition to container)
Expression
Return type
Assertion/note
Complexity
pre-/post-condition
X​::​key_­type
Key
compile time
X​::​mapped_­type (map and multimap only)
T
compile time
X​::​value_­type (set and multiset only)
Key
Requires:  value_­type is Erasable from X
compile time
X​::​value_­type (map and multimap only)
pair<const Key, T>
Requires:  value_­type is Erasable from X
compile time
X​::​key_­compare
Compare
Requires:  key_­compare is CopyConstructible.
compile time
X​::​value_­compare
a binary predicate type
is the same as key_­compare for set and multiset; is an ordering relation on pairs induced by the first component (i.e., Key) for map and multimap.
compile time
X​::​node_­type
a specialization of a node_­handle class template, such that the public nested types are the same types as the corresponding types in X.
compile time
X(c)
X u(c);
Effects:  Constructs an empty container.
Uses a copy of c as a comparison object.
constant
X()
X u;
Requires:  key_­compare is DefaultConstructible.

Effects:  Constructs an empty container.
Uses Compare() as a comparison object
constant
X(i,j,c)
X u(i,j,c);
Requires:  value_­type is EmplaceConstructible into X from *i.

Effects:  Constructs an empty container and inserts elements from the range [i, j) into it; uses c as a comparison object.
in general, where N has the value distance(i, j); linear if [i, j) is sorted with value_­comp()
X(i,j)
X u(i,j);
Requires:  key_­compare is DefaultConstructible.
value_­type is EmplaceConstructible into X from *i.

Effects:  Same as above, but uses Compare() as a comparison object.
same as above
X(il)
same as X(il.begin(), il.end())
same as X(il.begin(), il.end())
X(il,c)
same as X(il.begin(), il.end(), c)
same as X(il.begin(), il.end(), c)
a = il
X&
Requires:  value_­type is CopyInsertable into X and CopyAssignable.

Effects: Assigns the range [il.begin(), il.end()) into a.
All existing elements of a are either assigned to or destroyed.
in general, where N has the value il.size() + a.size(); linear if [il.begin(), il.end()) is sorted with value_­comp()
b.key_­comp()
X​::​key_­compare
returns the comparison object out of which b was constructed.
constant
b.value_­comp()
X​::​value_­compare
returns an object of value_­compare constructed out of the comparison object
constant
a_­uniq.​emplace(​args)
pair<​iterator, bool>
Requires:  value_­type shall be EmplaceConstructible into X from args.

Effects:  Inserts a value_­type object t constructed with std​::​forward<​Args​>(​args)... if and only if there is no element in the container with key equivalent to the key of t.
The bool component of the returned pair is true if and only if the insertion takes place, and the iterator component of the pair points to the element with key equivalent to the key of t.
logarithmic
a_­eq.​emplace(​args)
iterator
Requires:  value_­type shall be EmplaceConstructible into X from args.

Effects:  Inserts a value_­type object t constructed with std​::​forward<​Args​>(​args)... and returns the iterator pointing to the newly inserted element.
If a range containing elements equivalent to t exists in a_­eq, t is inserted at the end of that range.
logarithmic
a.emplace_­hint(​p, args)
iterator
equivalent to a.emplace( std​::​forward<​Args​>(​args)...).
Return value is an iterator pointing to the element with the key equivalent to the newly inserted element.
The element is inserted as close as possible to the position just prior to p.
logarithmic in general, but amortized constant if the element is inserted right before p
a_­uniq.​insert(​t)
pair<​iterator, bool>
Requires:  If t is a non-const rvalue expression, value_­type shall be MoveInsertable into X; otherwise, value_­type shall be CopyInsertable into X.

Effects:  Inserts t if and only if there is no element in the container with key equivalent to the key of t.
The bool component of the returned pair is true if and only if the insertion takes place, and the iterator component of the pair points to the element with key equivalent to the key of t.
logarithmic
a_­eq.​insert(​t)
iterator
Requires:  If t is a non-const rvalue expression, value_­type shall be MoveInsertable into X; otherwise, value_­type shall be CopyInsertable into X.

Effects:  Inserts t and returns the iterator pointing to the newly inserted element.
If a range containing elements equivalent to t exists in a_­eq, t is inserted at the end of that range.
logarithmic
a.​insert(​p, t)
iterator
Requires:  If t is a non-const rvalue expression, value_­type shall be MoveInsertable into X; otherwise, value_­type shall be CopyInsertable into X.

Effects:  Inserts t if and only if there is no element with key equivalent to the key of t in containers with unique keys; always inserts t in containers with equivalent keys.
Always returns the iterator pointing to the element with key equivalent to the key of t.
t is inserted as close as possible to the position just prior to p.
logarithmic in general, but amortized constant if t is inserted right before p.
a.​insert(​i, j)
void
Requires:  value_­type shall be EmplaceConstructible into X from *i.

Requires: i, j are not iterators into a.
inserts each element from the range [i, j) if and only if there is no element with key equivalent to the key of that element in containers with unique keys; always inserts that element in containers with equivalent keys.
, where N has the value distance(i, j)
a.​insert(​il)
void
equivalent to a.insert(il.begin(), il.end())
a_­uniq.​insert(​nh)
insert_­return_­type
Requires: nh is empty or a_­uniq.get_­allocator() == nh.get_­allocator().

Effects: If nh is empty, has no effect.
Otherwise, inserts the element owned by nh if and only if there is no element in the container with a key equivalent to nh.key().

Postconditions: If nh is empty, inserted is false, position is end(), and node is empty.
Otherwise if the insertion took place, inserted is true, position points to the inserted element, and node is empty; if the insertion failed, inserted is false, node has the previous value of nh, and position points to an element with a key equivalent to nh.key().
logarithmic
a_­eq.​insert(​nh)
iterator
Requires: nh is empty or a_­eq.get_­allocator() == nh.get_­allocator().

Effects: If nh is empty, has no effect and returns a_­eq.end().
Otherwise, inserts the element owned by nh and returns an iterator pointing to the newly inserted element.
If a range containing elements with keys equivalent to nh.key() exists in a_­eq, the element is inserted at the end of that range.

Postconditions: nh is empty.
logarithmic
a.​insert(​p, nh)
iterator
Requires: nh is empty or a.get_­allocator() == nh.get_­allocator().

Effects: If nh is empty, has no effect and returns a.end().
Otherwise, inserts the element owned by nh if and only if there is no element with key equivalent to nh.key() in containers with unique keys; always inserts the element owned by nh in containers with equivalent keys.
Always returns the iterator pointing to the element with key equivalent to nh.key().
The element is inserted as close as possible to the position just prior to p.

Postconditions: nh is empty if insertion succeeds, unchanged if insertion fails.
logarithmic in general, but amortized constant if the element is inserted right before p.
a.​extract(​k)
node_­type
removes the first element in the container with key equivalent to k.
Returns a node_­type owning the element if found, otherwise an empty node_­type.
log(a.size())
a.​extract(​q)
node_­type
removes the element pointed to by q.
Returns a node_­type owning that element.
amortized constant
a.merge(a2)
void
Requires: a.get_­allocator() == a2.get_­allocator().

Attempts to extract each element in a2 and insert it into a using the comparison object of a.
In containers with unique keys, if there is an element in a with key equivalent to the key of an element from a2, then that element is not extracted from a2.

Postconditions: Pointers and references to the transferred elements of a2 refer to those same elements but as members of a.
Iterators referring to the transferred elements will continue to refer to their elements, but they now behave as iterators into a, not into a2.

Throws: Nothing unless the comparison object throws.
, where N has the value a2.size().
a.erase(k)
size_­type
erases all elements in the container with key equivalent to k.
returns the number of erased elements.
a.erase(q)
iterator
erases the element pointed to by q.
Returns an iterator pointing to the element immediately following q prior to the element being erased.
If no such element exists, returns a.end().
amortized constant
a.erase(r)
iterator
erases the element pointed to by r.
Returns an iterator pointing to the element immediately following r prior to the element being erased.
If no such element exists, returns a.end().
amortized constant
a.erase(
q1, q2)
iterator
erases all the elements in the range [q1, q2).
Returns an iterator pointing to the element pointed to by q2 prior to any elements being erased.
If no such element exists, a.end() is returned.
, where N has the value distance(q1, q2).
a.clear()
void
a.erase(a.begin(),a.end())
Postconditions: a.empty() returns true.
linear in a.size().
b.find(k)
iterator; const_­iterator for constant b.
returns an iterator pointing to an element with the key equivalent to k, or b.end() if such an element is not found
logarithmic
a_­tran.
find(ke)
iterator; const_­iterator for constant a_­tran.
returns an iterator pointing to an element with key r such that !c(r, ke) && !c(ke, r), or a_­tran.end() if such an element is not found
logarithmic
b.count(k)
size_­type
returns the number of elements with key equivalent to k
a_­tran.
count(ke)
size_­type
returns the number of elements with key r such that !c(r, ke) && !c(ke, r)
b.lower_­bound(k)
iterator; const_­iterator for constant b.
returns an iterator pointing to the first element with key not less than k, or b.end() if such an element is not found.
logarithmic
a_­tran.
lower_­bound(kl)
iterator; const_­iterator for constant a_­tran.
returns an iterator pointing to the first element with key r such that !c(r, kl), or a_­tran.end() if such an element is not found.
logarithmic
b.upper_­bound(k)
iterator; const_­iterator for constant b.
returns an iterator pointing to the first element with key greater than k, or b.end() if such an element is not found.
logarithmic
a_­tran.
upper_­bound(ku)
iterator; const_­iterator for constant a_­tran.
returns an iterator pointing to the first element with key r such that c(ku, r), or a_­tran.end() if such an element is not found.
logarithmic
b.equal_­range(k)
pair<​iterator, iterator>; pair<​const_­iterator, const_­iterator> for constant b.
equivalent to make_­pair(b.lower_­bound(k), b.upper_­bound(k)).
logarithmic
a_­tran.
equal_­range(ke)
pair<​iterator, iterator>; pair<​const_­iterator, const_­iterator> for constant a_­tran.
equivalent to make_­pair(
a_­tran.lower_­bound(ke), a_­tran.upper_­bound(ke)).
logarithmic
The insert and emplace members shall not affect the validity of iterators and references to the container, and the erase members shall invalidate only iterators and references to the erased elements.
The extract members invalidate only iterators to the removed element; pointers and references to the removed element remain valid.
However, accessing the element through such pointers and references while the element is owned by a node_­type is undefined behavior.
References and pointers to an element obtained while it is owned by a node_­type are invalidated if the element is successfully inserted.
The fundamental property of iterators of associative containers is that they iterate through the containers in the non-descending order of keys where non-descending is defined by the comparison that was used to construct them.
For any two dereferenceable iterators i and j such that distance from i to j is positive, the following condition holds:
value_comp(*j, *i) == false
For associative containers with unique keys the stronger condition holds:
value_comp(*i, *j) != false
When an associative container is constructed by passing a comparison object the container shall not store a pointer or reference to the passed object, even if that object is passed by reference.
When an associative container is copied, either through a copy constructor or an assignment operator, the target container shall then use the comparison object from the container being copied, as if that comparison object had been passed to the target container in its constructor.
The member function templates find, count, lower_­bound, upper_­bound, and equal_­range shall not participate in overload resolution unless the qualified-id Compare​::​is_­transparent is valid and denotes a type ([temp.deduct]).
A deduction guide for an associative container shall not participate in overload resolution if any of the following are true:
  • It has an InputIterator template parameter and a type that does not qualify as an input iterator is deduced for that parameter.
  • It has an Allocator template parameter and a type that does not qualify as an allocator is deduced for that parameter.
  • It has a Compare template parameter and a type that qualifies as an allocator is deduced for that parameter.

26.2.6.1 Exception safety guarantees [associative.reqmts.except]

For associative containers, no clear() function throws an exception.
erase(k) does not throw an exception unless that exception is thrown by the container's Compare object (if any).
For associative containers, if an exception is thrown by any operation from within an insert or emplace function inserting a single element, the insertion has no effect.
For associative containers, no swap function throws an exception unless that exception is thrown by the swap of the container's Compare object (if any).