6 Basic concepts [basic]

6.4 Name lookup [basic.lookup]

6.4.4 Elaborated type specifiers [basic.lookup.elab]

An elaborated-type-specifier may be used to refer to a previously declared class-name or enum-name even though the name has been hidden by a non-type declaration.
If the elaborated-type-specifier has no nested-name-specifier, and unless the elaborated-type-specifier appears in a declaration with the following form:
class-key attribute-specifier-seq identifier ;
the identifier is looked up according to [basic.lookup.unqual] but ignoring any non-type names that have been declared.
If the elaborated-type-specifier is introduced by the enum keyword and this lookup does not find a previously declared type-name, the elaborated-type-specifier is ill-formed.
If the elaborated-type-specifier is introduced by the class-key and this lookup does not find a previously declared type-name, or if the elaborated-type-specifier appears in a declaration with the form:
class-key attribute-specifier-seq identifier ;
the elaborated-type-specifier is a declaration that introduces the class-name as described in [basic.scope.pdecl].
If the elaborated-type-specifier has a nested-name-specifier, qualified name lookup is performed, as described in [basic.lookup.qual], but ignoring any non-type names that have been declared.
If the name lookup does not find a previously declared type-name, the elaborated-type-specifier is ill-formed.
[Example
:
struct Node {
  struct Node* Next;            // OK: Refers to Node at global scope
  struct Data* Data;            // OK: Declares type Data
                                // at global scope and member Data
};

struct Data {
  struct Node* Node;            // OK: Refers to Node at global scope
  friend struct ::Glob;         // error: Glob is not declared, cannot introduce a qualified type ([dcl.type.elab])
  friend struct Glob;           // OK: Refers to (as yet) undeclared Glob at global scope.
  /* ... */
};

struct Base {
  struct Data;                  // OK: Declares nested Data
  struct ::Data*     thatData;  // OK: Refers to ​::​Data
  struct Base::Data* thisData;  // OK: Refers to nested Data
  friend class ::Data;          // OK: global Data is a friend
  friend class Data;            // OK: nested Data is a friend
  struct Data { /* ... */ };    // Defines nested Data
};

struct Data;                    // OK: Redeclares Data at global scope
struct ::Data;                  // error: cannot introduce a qualified type ([dcl.type.elab])
struct Base::Data;              // error: cannot introduce a qualified type ([dcl.type.elab])
struct Base::Datum;             // error: Datum undefined
struct Base::Data* pBase;       // OK: refers to nested Data
end example
]