21 Strings library [strings]

21.3 String classes [string.classes]

21.3.3 Class template basic_­string [basic.string]

21.3.3.1 General [basic.string.general]

The class template basic_­string describes objects that can store a sequence consisting of a varying number of arbitrary char-like objects with the first element of the sequence at position zero.
Such a sequence is also called a β€œstring” if the type of the char-like objects that it holds is clear from context.
In the rest of [basic.string], the type of the char-like objects held in a basic_­string object is designated by charT.
A specialization of basic_­string is a contiguous container ([container.requirements.general]).
In all cases, [data(), data() + size()] is a valid range, data() + size() points at an object with value charT() (a β€œnull terminator”), and size() <= capacity() is true.
namespace std { template<class charT, class traits = char_traits<charT>, class Allocator = allocator<charT>> class basic_string { public: // types using traits_type = traits; using value_type = charT; using allocator_type = Allocator; using size_type = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::size_type; using difference_type = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::difference_type; using pointer = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::pointer; using const_pointer = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::const_pointer; using reference = value_type&; using const_reference = const value_type&; using iterator = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements] using const_iterator = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements] using reverse_iterator = std::reverse_iterator<iterator>; using const_reverse_iterator = std::reverse_iterator<const_iterator>; static const size_type npos = -1; // [string.cons], construct/copy/destroy constexpr basic_string() noexcept(noexcept(Allocator())) : basic_string(Allocator()) { } constexpr explicit basic_string(const Allocator& a) noexcept; constexpr basic_string(const basic_string& str); constexpr basic_string(basic_string&& str) noexcept; constexpr basic_string(const basic_string& str, size_type pos, const Allocator& a = Allocator()); constexpr basic_string(const basic_string& str, size_type pos, size_type n, const Allocator& a = Allocator()); template<class T> constexpr basic_string(const T& t, size_type pos, size_type n, const Allocator& a = Allocator()); template<class T> constexpr explicit basic_string(const T& t, const Allocator& a = Allocator()); constexpr basic_string(const charT* s, size_type n, const Allocator& a = Allocator()); constexpr basic_string(const charT* s, const Allocator& a = Allocator()); constexpr basic_string(size_type n, charT c, const Allocator& a = Allocator()); template<class InputIterator> constexpr basic_string(InputIterator begin, InputIterator end, const Allocator& a = Allocator()); constexpr basic_string(initializer_list<charT>, const Allocator& = Allocator()); constexpr basic_string(const basic_string&, const Allocator&); constexpr basic_string(basic_string&&, const Allocator&); constexpr ~basic_string(); constexpr basic_string& operator=(const basic_string& str); constexpr basic_string& operator=(basic_string&& str) noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::propagate_on_container_move_assignment::value || allocator_traits<Allocator>::is_always_equal::value); template<class T> constexpr basic_string& operator=(const T& t); constexpr basic_string& operator=(const charT* s); constexpr basic_string& operator=(charT c); constexpr basic_string& operator=(initializer_list<charT>); // [string.iterators], iterators constexpr iterator begin() noexcept; constexpr const_iterator begin() const noexcept; constexpr iterator end() noexcept; constexpr const_iterator end() const noexcept; constexpr reverse_iterator rbegin() noexcept; constexpr const_reverse_iterator rbegin() const noexcept; constexpr reverse_iterator rend() noexcept; constexpr const_reverse_iterator rend() const noexcept; constexpr const_iterator cbegin() const noexcept; constexpr const_iterator cend() const noexcept; constexpr const_reverse_iterator crbegin() const noexcept; constexpr const_reverse_iterator crend() const noexcept; // [string.capacity], capacity constexpr size_type size() const noexcept; constexpr size_type length() const noexcept; constexpr size_type max_size() const noexcept; constexpr void resize(size_type n, charT c); constexpr void resize(size_type n); constexpr size_type capacity() const noexcept; constexpr void reserve(size_type res_arg); constexpr void shrink_to_fit(); constexpr void clear() noexcept; [[nodiscard]] constexpr bool empty() const noexcept; // [string.access], element access constexpr const_reference operator[](size_type pos) const; constexpr reference operator[](size_type pos); constexpr const_reference at(size_type n) const; constexpr reference at(size_type n); constexpr const charT& front() const; constexpr charT& front(); constexpr const charT& back() const; constexpr charT& back(); // [string.modifiers], modifiers constexpr basic_string& operator+=(const basic_string& str); template<class T> constexpr basic_string& operator+=(const T& t); constexpr basic_string& operator+=(const charT* s); constexpr basic_string& operator+=(charT c); constexpr basic_string& operator+=(initializer_list<charT>); constexpr basic_string& append(const basic_string& str); constexpr basic_string& append(const basic_string& str, size_type pos, size_type n = npos); template<class T> constexpr basic_string& append(const T& t); template<class T> constexpr basic_string& append(const T& t, size_type pos, size_type n = npos); constexpr basic_string& append(const charT* s, size_type n); constexpr basic_string& append(const charT* s); constexpr basic_string& append(size_type n, charT c); template<class InputIterator> constexpr basic_string& append(InputIterator first, InputIterator last); constexpr basic_string& append(initializer_list<charT>); constexpr void push_back(charT c); constexpr basic_string& assign(const basic_string& str); constexpr basic_string& assign(basic_string&& str) noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::propagate_on_container_move_assignment::value || allocator_traits<Allocator>::is_always_equal::value); constexpr basic_string& assign(const basic_string& str, size_type pos, size_type n = npos); template<class T> constexpr basic_string& assign(const T& t); template<class T> constexpr basic_string& assign(const T& t, size_type pos, size_type n = npos); constexpr basic_string& assign(const charT* s, size_type n); constexpr basic_string& assign(const charT* s); constexpr basic_string& assign(size_type n, charT c); template<class InputIterator> constexpr basic_string& assign(InputIterator first, InputIterator last); constexpr basic_string& assign(initializer_list<charT>); constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos, const basic_string& str); constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos1, const basic_string& str, size_type pos2, size_type n = npos); template<class T> constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos, const T& t); template<class T> constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos1, const T& t, size_type pos2, size_type n = npos); constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos, const charT* s, size_type n); constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos, const charT* s); constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos, size_type n, charT c); constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator p, charT c); constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator p, size_type n, charT c); template<class InputIterator> constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator p, InputIterator first, InputIterator last); constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator p, initializer_list<charT>); constexpr basic_string& erase(size_type pos = 0, size_type n = npos); constexpr iterator erase(const_iterator p); constexpr iterator erase(const_iterator first, const_iterator last); constexpr void pop_back(); constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const basic_string& str); constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const basic_string& str, size_type pos2, size_type n2 = npos); template<class T> constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const T& t); template<class T> constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const T& t, size_type pos2, size_type n2 = npos); constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos, size_type n1, const charT* s, size_type n2); constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos, size_type n1, const charT* s); constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos, size_type n1, size_type n2, charT c); constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, const basic_string& str); template<class T> constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, const T& t); constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, const charT* s, size_type n); constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, const charT* s); constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, size_type n, charT c); template<class InputIterator> constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, InputIterator j1, InputIterator j2); constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator, const_iterator, initializer_list<charT>); constexpr size_type copy(charT* s, size_type n, size_type pos = 0) const; constexpr void swap(basic_string& str) noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::propagate_on_container_swap::value || allocator_traits<Allocator>::is_always_equal::value); // [string.ops], string operations constexpr const charT* c_str() const noexcept; constexpr const charT* data() const noexcept; constexpr charT* data() noexcept; constexpr operator basic_string_view<charT, traits>() const noexcept; constexpr allocator_type get_allocator() const noexcept; template<class T> constexpr size_type find(const T& t, size_type pos = 0) const noexcept(see below); constexpr size_type find(const basic_string& str, size_type pos = 0) const noexcept; constexpr size_type find(const charT* s, size_type pos, size_type n) const; constexpr size_type find(const charT* s, size_type pos = 0) const; constexpr size_type find(charT c, size_type pos = 0) const noexcept; template<class T> constexpr size_type rfind(const T& t, size_type pos = npos) const noexcept(see below); constexpr size_type rfind(const basic_string& str, size_type pos = npos) const noexcept; constexpr size_type rfind(const charT* s, size_type pos, size_type n) const; constexpr size_type rfind(const charT* s, size_type pos = npos) const; constexpr size_type rfind(charT c, size_type pos = npos) const noexcept; template<class T> constexpr size_type find_first_of(const T& t, size_type pos = 0) const noexcept(see below); constexpr size_type find_first_of(const basic_string& str, size_type pos = 0) const noexcept; constexpr size_type find_first_of(const charT* s, size_type pos, size_type n) const; constexpr size_type find_first_of(const charT* s, size_type pos = 0) const; constexpr size_type find_first_of(charT c, size_type pos = 0) const noexcept; template<class T> constexpr size_type find_last_of(const T& t, size_type pos = npos) const noexcept(see below); constexpr size_type find_last_of(const basic_string& str, size_type pos = npos) const noexcept; constexpr size_type find_last_of(const charT* s, size_type pos, size_type n) const; constexpr size_type find_last_of(const charT* s, size_type pos = npos) const; constexpr size_type find_last_of(charT c, size_type pos = npos) const noexcept; template<class T> constexpr size_type find_first_not_of(const T& t, size_type pos = 0) const noexcept(see below); constexpr size_type find_first_not_of(const basic_string& str, size_type pos = 0) const noexcept; constexpr size_type find_first_not_of(const charT* s, size_type pos, size_type n) const; constexpr size_type find_first_not_of(const charT* s, size_type pos = 0) const; constexpr size_type find_first_not_of(charT c, size_type pos = 0) const noexcept; template<class T> constexpr size_type find_last_not_of(const T& t, size_type pos = npos) const noexcept(see below); constexpr size_type find_last_not_of(const basic_string& str, size_type pos = npos) const noexcept; constexpr size_type find_last_not_of(const charT* s, size_type pos, size_type n) const; constexpr size_type find_last_not_of(const charT* s, size_type pos = npos) const; constexpr size_type find_last_not_of(charT c, size_type pos = npos) const noexcept; constexpr basic_string substr(size_type pos = 0, size_type n = npos) const; template<class T> constexpr int compare(const T& t) const noexcept(see below); template<class T> constexpr int compare(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const T& t) const; template<class T> constexpr int compare(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const T& t, size_type pos2, size_type n2 = npos) const; constexpr int compare(const basic_string& str) const noexcept; constexpr int compare(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const basic_string& str) const; constexpr int compare(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const basic_string& str, size_type pos2, size_type n2 = npos) const; constexpr int compare(const charT* s) const; constexpr int compare(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const charT* s) const; constexpr int compare(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const charT* s, size_type n2) const; constexpr bool starts_with(basic_string_view<charT, traits> x) const noexcept; constexpr bool starts_with(charT x) const noexcept; constexpr bool starts_with(const charT* x) const; constexpr bool ends_with(basic_string_view<charT, traits> x) const noexcept; constexpr bool ends_with(charT x) const noexcept; constexpr bool ends_with(const charT* x) const; }; template<class InputIterator, class Allocator = allocator<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type>> basic_string(InputIterator, InputIterator, Allocator = Allocator()) -> basic_string<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type, char_traits<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type>, Allocator>; template<class charT, class traits, class Allocator = allocator<charT>> explicit basic_string(basic_string_view<charT, traits>, const Allocator& = Allocator()) -> basic_string<charT, traits, Allocator>; template<class charT, class traits, class Allocator = allocator<charT>> basic_string(basic_string_view<charT, traits>, typename see below::size_type, typename see below::size_type, const Allocator& = Allocator()) -> basic_string<charT, traits, Allocator>; }
A size_­type parameter type in a basic_­string deduction guide refers to the size_­type member type of the type deduced by the deduction guide.

21.3.3.2 General requirements [string.require]

If any operation would cause size() to exceed max_­size(), that operation throws an exception object of type length_­error.
If any member function or operator of basic_­string throws an exception, that function or operator has no other effect on the basic_­string object.
In every specialization basic_­string<charT, traits, Allocator>, the type allocator_­traits<Allocator>​::​value_­type shall name the same type as charT.
Every object of type basic_­string<charT, traits, Allocator> uses an object of type Allocator to allocate and free storage for the contained charT objects as needed.
The Allocator object used is obtained as described in [container.requirements.general].
In every specialization basic_­string<charT, traits, Allocator>, the type traits shall meet the character traits requirements ([char.traits]).
[Note 1:
The program is ill-formed if traits​::​char_­type is not the same type as charT.
β€” end note]
References, pointers, and iterators referring to the elements of a basic_­string sequence may be invalidated by the following uses of that basic_­string object:
  • Passing as an argument to any standard library function taking a reference to non-const basic_­string as an argument.228
  • Calling non-const member functions, except operator[], at, data, front, back, begin, rbegin, end, and rend.
228)228)
For example, as an argument to non-member functions swap() ([string.special]), operator>>() ([string.io]), and getline() ([string.io]), or as an argument to basic_­string​::​swap().

21.3.3.3 Constructors and assignment operators [string.cons]

constexpr explicit basic_string(const Allocator& a) noexcept;
Postconditions: size() is equal to 0.
constexpr basic_string(const basic_string& str); constexpr basic_string(basic_string&& str) noexcept;
Effects: Constructs an object whose value is that of str prior to this call.
Remarks: In the second form, str is left in a valid but unspecified state.
constexpr basic_string(const basic_string& str, size_type pos, const Allocator& a = Allocator()); constexpr basic_string(const basic_string& str, size_type pos, size_type n, const Allocator& a = Allocator());
Effects: Let n be npos for the first overload.
Equivalent to: basic_string(basic_string_view<charT, traits>(str).substr(pos, n), a)
template<class T> constexpr basic_string(const T& t, size_type pos, size_type n, const Allocator& a = Allocator());
Constraints: is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true.
Effects: Creates a variable, sv, as if by basic_­string_­view<charT, traits> sv = t; and then behaves the same as: basic_string(sv.substr(pos, n), a);
template<class T> constexpr explicit basic_string(const T& t, const Allocator& a = Allocator());
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Creates a variable, sv, as if by basic_­string_­view<charT, traits> sv = t; and then behaves the same as basic_­string(sv.data(), sv.size(), a).
constexpr basic_string(const charT* s, size_type n, const Allocator& a = Allocator());
Preconditions: [s, s + n) is a valid range.
Effects: Constructs an object whose initial value is the range [s, s + n).
Postconditions: size() is equal to n, and traits​::​compare(data(), s, n) is equal to 0.
constexpr basic_string(const charT* s, const Allocator& a = Allocator());
Constraints: Allocator is a type that qualifies as an allocator ([container.requirements.general]).
[Note 1:
This affects class template argument deduction.
β€” end note]
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_­string(s, traits​::​length(s), a).
constexpr basic_string(size_type n, charT c, const Allocator& a = Allocator());
Constraints: Allocator is a type that qualifies as an allocator ([container.requirements.general]).
[Note 2:
This affects class template argument deduction.
β€” end note]
Effects: Constructs an object whose value consists of n copies of c.
template<class InputIterator> constexpr basic_string(InputIterator begin, InputIterator end, const Allocator& a = Allocator());
Constraints: InputIterator is a type that qualifies as an input iterator ([container.requirements.general]).
Effects: Constructs a string from the values in the range [begin, end), as indicated in Table 77.
constexpr basic_string(initializer_list<charT> il, const Allocator& a = Allocator());
Effects: Equivalent to basic_­string(il.begin(), il.end(), a).
constexpr basic_string(const basic_string& str, const Allocator& alloc); constexpr basic_string(basic_string&& str, const Allocator& alloc);
Effects: Constructs an object whose value is that of str prior to this call.
The stored allocator is constructed from alloc.
In the second form, str is left in a valid but unspecified state.
Throws: The second form throws nothing if alloc == str.get_­allocator().
template<class InputIterator, class Allocator = allocator<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type>> basic_string(InputIterator, InputIterator, Allocator = Allocator()) -> basic_string<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type, char_traits<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type>, Allocator>;
Constraints: InputIterator is a type that qualifies as an input iterator, and Allocator is a type that qualifies as an allocator ([container.requirements.general]).
template<class charT, class traits, class Allocator = allocator<charT>> explicit basic_string(basic_string_view<charT, traits>, const Allocator& = Allocator()) -> basic_string<charT, traits, Allocator>; template<class charT, class traits, class Allocator = allocator<charT>> basic_string(basic_string_view<charT, traits>, typename see below::size_type, typename see below::size_type, const Allocator& = Allocator()) -> basic_string<charT, traits, Allocator>;
Constraints: Allocator is a type that qualifies as an allocator ([container.requirements.general]).
constexpr basic_string& operator=(const basic_string& str);
Effects: If *this and str are the same object, has no effect.
Otherwise, replaces the value of *this with a copy of str.
Returns: *this.
constexpr basic_string& operator=(basic_string&& str) noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::propagate_on_container_move_assignment::value || allocator_traits<Allocator>::is_always_equal::value);
Effects: Move assigns as a sequence container, except that iterators, pointers and references may be invalidated.
Returns: *this.
template<class T> constexpr basic_string& operator=(const T& t);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> sv = t; return assign(sv);
constexpr basic_string& operator=(const charT* s);
Effects: Equivalent to: return *this = basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(s);
constexpr basic_string& operator=(charT c);
Effects: Equivalent to: return *this = basic_string_view<charT, traits>(addressof(c), 1);
constexpr basic_string& operator=(initializer_list<charT> il);
Effects: Equivalent to: return *this = basic_string_view<charT, traits>(il.begin(), il.size());

21.3.3.4 Iterator support [string.iterators]

constexpr iterator begin() noexcept; constexpr const_iterator begin() const noexcept; constexpr const_iterator cbegin() const noexcept;
Returns: An iterator referring to the first character in the string.
constexpr iterator end() noexcept; constexpr const_iterator end() const noexcept; constexpr const_iterator cend() const noexcept;
Returns: An iterator which is the past-the-end value.
constexpr reverse_iterator rbegin() noexcept; constexpr const_reverse_iterator rbegin() const noexcept; constexpr const_reverse_iterator crbegin() const noexcept;
Returns: An iterator which is semantically equivalent to reverse_­iterator(end()).
constexpr reverse_iterator rend() noexcept; constexpr const_reverse_iterator rend() const noexcept; constexpr const_reverse_iterator crend() const noexcept;
Returns: An iterator which is semantically equivalent to reverse_­iterator(begin()).

21.3.3.5 Capacity [string.capacity]

constexpr size_type size() const noexcept; constexpr size_type length() const noexcept;
Returns: A count of the number of char-like objects currently in the string.
Complexity: Constant time.
constexpr size_type max_size() const noexcept;
Returns: The largest possible number of char-like objects that can be stored in a basic_­string.
Complexity: Constant time.
constexpr void resize(size_type n, charT c);
Effects: Alters the value of *this as follows:
  • If n <= size(), erases the last size() - n elements.
  • If n > size(), appends n - size() copies of c.
constexpr void resize(size_type n);
Effects: Equivalent to resize(n, charT()).
constexpr size_type capacity() const noexcept;
Returns: The size of the allocated storage in the string.
Complexity: Constant time.
constexpr void reserve(size_type res_arg);
Effects: A directive that informs a basic_­string of a planned change in size, so that the storage allocation can be managed accordingly.
After reserve(), capacity() is greater or equal to the argument of reserve if reallocation happens; and equal to the previous value of capacity() otherwise.
Reallocation happens at this point if and only if the current capacity is less than the argument of reserve().
Throws: length_­error if res_­arg > max_­size() or any exceptions thrown by allocator_­traits <Allocator>​::​allocate.
constexpr void shrink_to_fit();
Effects: shrink_­to_­fit is a non-binding request to reduce capacity() to size().
[Note 1:
The request is non-binding to allow latitude for implementation-specific optimizations.
β€” end note]
It does not increase capacity(), but may reduce capacity() by causing reallocation.
Complexity: If the size is not equal to the old capacity, linear in the size of the sequence; otherwise constant.
Remarks: Reallocation invalidates all the references, pointers, and iterators referring to the elements in the sequence, as well as the past-the-end iterator.
[Note 2:
If no reallocation happens, they remain valid.
β€” end note]
constexpr void clear() noexcept;
Effects: Equivalent to: erase(begin(), end());
[[nodiscard]] constexpr bool empty() const noexcept;
Effects: Equivalent to: return size() == 0;

21.3.3.6 Element access [string.access]

constexpr const_reference operator[](size_type pos) const; constexpr reference operator[](size_type pos);
Preconditions: pos <= size().
Returns: *(begin() + pos) if pos < size().
Otherwise, returns a reference to an object of type charT with value charT(), where modifying the object to any value other than charT() leads to undefined behavior.
Throws: Nothing.
Complexity: Constant time.
constexpr const_reference at(size_type pos) const; constexpr reference at(size_type pos);
Returns: operator[](pos).
Throws: out_­of_­range if pos >= size().
constexpr const charT& front() const; constexpr charT& front();
Preconditions: !empty().
Effects: Equivalent to: return operator[](0);
constexpr const charT& back() const; constexpr charT& back();
Preconditions: !empty().
Effects: Equivalent to: return operator[](size() - 1);

21.3.3.7 Modifiers [string.modifiers]

21.3.3.7.1 basic_­string​::​operator+= [string.op.append]

constexpr basic_string& operator+=(const basic_string& str);
Effects: Equivalent to: return append(str);
template<class T> constexpr basic_string& operator+=(const T& t);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> sv = t; return append(sv);
constexpr basic_string& operator+=(const charT* s);
Effects: Equivalent to: return append(s);
constexpr basic_string& operator+=(charT c);
Effects: Equivalent to: return append(size_­type{1}, c);
constexpr basic_string& operator+=(initializer_list<charT> il);
Effects: Equivalent to: return append(il);

21.3.3.7.2 basic_­string​::​append [string.append]

constexpr basic_string& append(const basic_string& str);
Effects: Equivalent to: return append(str.data(), str.size());
constexpr basic_string& append(const basic_string& str, size_type pos, size_type n = npos);
Effects: Equivalent to: return append(basic_string_view<charT, traits>(str).substr(pos, n));
template<class T> constexpr basic_string& append(const T& t);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> sv = t; return append(sv.data(), sv.size());
template<class T> constexpr basic_string& append(const T& t, size_type pos, size_type n = npos);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> sv = t; return append(sv.substr(pos, n));
constexpr basic_string& append(const charT* s, size_type n);
Preconditions: [s, s + n) is a valid range.
Effects: Appends a copy of the range [s, s + n) to the string.
Returns: *this.
constexpr basic_string& append(const charT* s);
Effects: Equivalent to: return append(s, traits​::​length(s));
constexpr basic_string& append(size_type n, charT c);
Effects: Appends n copies of c to the string.
Returns: *this.
template<class InputIterator> constexpr basic_string& append(InputIterator first, InputIterator last);
Constraints: InputIterator is a type that qualifies as an input iterator ([container.requirements.general]).
Effects: Equivalent to: return append(basic_­string(first, last, get_­allocator()));
constexpr basic_string& append(initializer_list<charT> il);
Effects: Equivalent to: return append(il.begin(), il.size());
constexpr void push_back(charT c);
Effects: Equivalent to append(size_­type{1}, c).

21.3.3.7.3 basic_­string​::​assign [string.assign]

constexpr basic_string& assign(const basic_string& str);
Effects: Equivalent to: return *this = str;
constexpr basic_string& assign(basic_string&& str) noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::propagate_on_container_move_assignment::value || allocator_traits<Allocator>::is_always_equal::value);
Effects: Equivalent to: return *this = std​::​move(str);
constexpr basic_string& assign(const basic_string& str, size_type pos, size_type n = npos);
Effects: Equivalent to: return assign(basic_string_view<charT, traits>(str).substr(pos, n));
template<class T> constexpr basic_string& assign(const T& t);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> sv = t; return assign(sv.data(), sv.size());
template<class T> constexpr basic_string& assign(const T& t, size_type pos, size_type n = npos);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> sv = t; return assign(sv.substr(pos, n));
constexpr basic_string& assign(const charT* s, size_type n);
Preconditions: [s, s + n) is a valid range.
Effects: Replaces the string controlled by *this with a copy of the range [s, s + n).
Returns: *this.
constexpr basic_string& assign(const charT* s);
Effects: Equivalent to: return assign(s, traits​::​length(s));
constexpr basic_string& assign(initializer_list<charT> il);
Effects: Equivalent to: return assign(il.begin(), il.size());
constexpr basic_string& assign(size_type n, charT c);
Effects: Equivalent to: clear(); resize(n, c); return *this;
template<class InputIterator> constexpr basic_string& assign(InputIterator first, InputIterator last);
Constraints: InputIterator is a type that qualifies as an input iterator ([container.requirements.general]).
Effects: Equivalent to: return assign(basic_­string(first, last, get_­allocator()));

21.3.3.7.4 basic_­string​::​insert [string.insert]

constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos, const basic_string& str);
Effects: Equivalent to: return insert(pos, str.data(), str.size());
constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos1, const basic_string& str, size_type pos2, size_type n = npos);
Effects: Equivalent to: return insert(pos1, basic_string_view<charT, traits>(str), pos2, n);
template<class T> constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos, const T& t);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> sv = t; return insert(pos, sv.data(), sv.size());
template<class T> constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos1, const T& t, size_type pos2, size_type n = npos);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> sv = t; return insert(pos1, sv.substr(pos2, n));
constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos, const charT* s, size_type n);
Preconditions: [s, s + n) is a valid range.
Effects: Inserts a copy of the range [s, s + n) immediately before the character at position pos if pos < size(), or otherwise at the end of the string.
Returns: *this.
Throws:
  • out_­of_­range if pos > size(),
  • length_­error if n > max_­size() - size(), or
  • any exceptions thrown by allocator_­traits<Allocator>​::​allocate.
constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos, const charT* s);
Effects: Equivalent to: return insert(pos, s, traits​::​length(s));
constexpr basic_string& insert(size_type pos, size_type n, charT c);
Effects: Inserts n copies of c before the character at position pos if pos < size(), or otherwise at the end of the string.
Returns: *this
Throws:
  • out_­of_­range if pos > size(),
  • length_­error if n > max_­size() - size(), or
  • any exceptions thrown by allocator_­traits<Allocator>​::​allocate.
constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator p, charT c);
Preconditions: p is a valid iterator on *this.
Effects: Inserts a copy of c at the position p.
Returns: An iterator which refers to the inserted character.
constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator p, size_type n, charT c);
Preconditions: p is a valid iterator on *this.
Effects: Inserts n copies of c at the position p.
Returns: An iterator which refers to the first inserted character, or p if n == 0.
template<class InputIterator> constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator p, InputIterator first, InputIterator last);
Constraints: InputIterator is a type that qualifies as an input iterator ([container.requirements.general]).
Preconditions: p is a valid iterator on *this.
Effects: Equivalent to insert(p - begin(), basic_­string(first, last, get_­allocator())).
Returns: An iterator which refers to the first inserted character, or p if first == last.
constexpr iterator insert(const_iterator p, initializer_list<charT> il);
Effects: Equivalent to: return insert(p, il.begin(), il.end());

21.3.3.7.5 basic_­string​::​erase [string.erase]

constexpr basic_string& erase(size_type pos = 0, size_type n = npos);
Effects: Determines the effective length xlen of the string to be removed as the smaller of n and size() - pos.
Removes the characters in the range [begin() + pos, begin() + pos + xlen).
Returns: *this.
Throws: out_­of_­range if pos > size().
constexpr iterator erase(const_iterator p);
Preconditions: p is a valid dereferenceable iterator on *this.
Effects: Removes the character referred to by p.
Returns: An iterator which points to the element immediately following p prior to the element being erased.
If no such element exists, end() is returned.
Throws: Nothing.
constexpr iterator erase(const_iterator first, const_iterator last);
Preconditions: first and last are valid iterators on *this.
[first, last) is a valid range.
Effects: Removes the characters in the range [first, last).
Returns: An iterator which points to the element pointed to by last prior to the other elements being erased.
If no such element exists, end() is returned.
Throws: Nothing.
constexpr void pop_back();
Preconditions: !empty().
Effects: Equivalent to erase(end() - 1).
Throws: Nothing.

21.3.3.7.6 basic_­string​::​replace [string.replace]

constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const basic_string& str);
Effects: Equivalent to: return replace(pos1, n1, str.data(), str.size());
constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const basic_string& str, size_type pos2, size_type n2 = npos);
Effects: Equivalent to: return replace(pos1, n1, basic_string_view<charT, traits>(str).substr(pos2, n2));
template<class T> constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const T& t);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> sv = t; return replace(pos1, n1, sv.data(), sv.size());
template<class T> constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const T& t, size_type pos2, size_type n2 = npos);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> sv = t; return replace(pos1, n1, sv.substr(pos2, n2));
constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const charT* s, size_type n2);
Preconditions: [s, s + n2) is a valid range.
Effects: Determines the effective length xlen of the string to be removed as the smaller of n1 and size() - pos1.
If size() - xlen >= max_­size() - n2 throws length_­error.
Otherwise, the function replaces the characters in the range [begin() + pos1, begin() + pos1 + xlen) with a copy of the range [s, s + n2).
Returns: *this.
Throws:
  • out_­of_­range if pos1 > size(),
  • length_­error if the length of the resulting string would exceed max_­size(), or
  • any exceptions thrown by allocator_­traits<Allocator>​::​allocate.
constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos, size_type n, const charT* s);
Effects: Equivalent to: return replace(pos, n, s, traits​::​length(s));
constexpr basic_string& replace(size_type pos1, size_type n1, size_type n2, charT c);
Effects: Determines the effective length xlen of the string to be removed as the smaller of n1 and size() - pos1.
If size() - xlen >= max_­size() - n2 throws length_­error.
Otherwise, the function replaces the characters in the range [begin() + pos1, begin() + pos1 + xlen) with n2 copies of c.
Returns: *this.
Throws:
  • out_­of_­range if pos1 > size(),
  • length_­error if the length of the resulting string would exceedmax_­size(), or
  • any exceptions thrown by allocator_­traits<Allocator>​::​allocate.
constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, const basic_string& str);
Effects: Equivalent to: return replace(i1, i2, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(str));
template<class T> constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, const T& t);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Preconditions: [begin(), i1) and [i1, i2) are valid ranges.
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> sv = t; return replace(i1 - begin(), i2 - i1, sv.data(), sv.size());
constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, const charT* s, size_type n);
Effects: Equivalent to: return replace(i1, i2, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(s, n));
constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, const charT* s);
Effects: Equivalent to: return replace(i1, i2, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(s));
constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, size_type n, charT c);
Preconditions: [begin(), i1) and [i1, i2) are valid ranges.
Effects: Equivalent to: return replace(i1 - begin(), i2 - i1, n, c);
template<class InputIterator> constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, InputIterator j1, InputIterator j2);
Constraints: InputIterator is a type that qualifies as an input iterator ([container.requirements.general]).
Effects: Equivalent to: return replace(i1, i2, basic_­string(j1, j2, get_­allocator()));
constexpr basic_string& replace(const_iterator i1, const_iterator i2, initializer_list<charT> il);
Effects: Equivalent to: return replace(i1, i2, il.begin(), il.size());

21.3.3.7.7 basic_­string​::​copy [string.copy]

constexpr size_type copy(charT* s, size_type n, size_type pos = 0) const;
Effects: Equivalent to: return basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(*this).copy(s, n, pos);
[Note 1:
This does not terminate s with a null object.
β€” end note]

21.3.3.7.8 basic_­string​::​swap [string.swap]

constexpr void swap(basic_string& s) noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::propagate_on_container_swap::value || allocator_traits<Allocator>::is_always_equal::value);
Preconditions: allocator_­traits<Allocator>​::​propagate_­on_­container_­swap​::​value is true or get_­allocator() == s.get_­allocator().
Postconditions: *this contains the same sequence of characters that was in s, s contains the same sequence of characters that was in *this.
Throws: Nothing.
Complexity: Constant time.

21.3.3.8 String operations [string.ops]

21.3.3.8.1 Accessors [string.accessors]

constexpr const charT* c_str() const noexcept; constexpr const charT* data() const noexcept;
Returns: A pointer p such that p + i == addressof(operator[](i)) for each i in [0, size()].
Complexity: Constant time.
Remarks: The program shall not modify any of the values stored in the character array; otherwise, the behavior is undefined.
constexpr charT* data() noexcept;
Returns: A pointer p such that p + i == addressof(operator[](i)) for each i in [0, size()].
Complexity: Constant time.
Remarks: The program shall not modify the value stored at p + size() to any value other than charT(); otherwise, the behavior is undefined.
constexpr operator basic_string_view<charT, traits>() const noexcept;
Effects: Equivalent to: return basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(data(), size());
constexpr allocator_type get_allocator() const noexcept;
Returns: A copy of the Allocator object used to construct the string or, if that allocator has been replaced, a copy of the most recent replacement.

21.3.3.8.2 Searching [string.find]

Let F be one of find, rfind, find_­first_­of, find_­last_­of, find_­first_­not_­of, and find_­last_­not_­of.
  • Each member function of the form constexpr size_type F(const basic_string& str, size_type pos) const noexcept; has effects equivalent to: return F(basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(str), pos);
  • Each member function of the form constexpr size_type F(const charT* s, size_type pos) const; has effects equivalent to: return F(basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(s), pos);
  • Each member function of the form constexpr size_type F(const charT* s, size_type pos, size_type n) const; has effects equivalent to: return F(basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(s, n), pos);
  • Each member function of the form constexpr size_type F(charT c, size_type pos) const noexcept; has effects equivalent to: return F(basic_string_view<charT, traits>(addressof(c), 1), pos);
template<class T> constexpr size_type find(const T& t, size_type pos = 0) const noexcept(see below); template<class T> constexpr size_type rfind(const T& t, size_type pos = npos) const noexcept(see below); template<class T> constexpr size_type find_first_of(const T& t, size_type pos = 0) const noexcept(see below); template<class T> constexpr size_type find_last_of(const T& t, size_type pos = npos) const noexcept(see below); template<class T> constexpr size_type find_first_not_of(const T& t, size_type pos = 0) const noexcept(see below); template<class T> constexpr size_type find_last_not_of(const T& t, size_type pos = npos) const noexcept(see below);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Let G be the name of the function.
Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> s = *this, sv = t; return s.G(sv, pos);
Remarks: The expression inside noexcept is equivalent to is_­nothrow_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>>.

21.3.3.8.3 basic_­string​::​substr [string.substr]

constexpr basic_string substr(size_type pos = 0, size_type n = npos) const;
Effects: Determines the effective length rlen of the string to copy as the smaller of n and size() - pos.
Returns: basic_­string(data()+pos, rlen).
Throws: out_­of_­range if pos > size().

21.3.3.8.4 basic_­string​::​compare [string.compare]

template<class T> constexpr int compare(const T& t) const noexcept(see below);
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: return basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(*this).compare(t);
Remarks: The expression inside noexcept is equivalent to is_­nothrow_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>>.
template<class T> constexpr int compare(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const T& t) const;
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: return basic_string_view<charT, traits>(*this).substr(pos1, n1).compare(t);
template<class T> constexpr int compare(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const T& t, size_type pos2, size_type n2 = npos) const;
Constraints:
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>> is true and
  • is_­convertible_­v<const T&, const charT*> is false.
Effects: Equivalent to: basic_string_view<charT, traits> s = *this, sv = t; return s.substr(pos1, n1).compare(sv.substr(pos2, n2));
constexpr int compare(const basic_string& str) const noexcept;
Effects: Equivalent to: return compare(basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(str));
constexpr int compare(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const basic_string& str) const;
Effects: Equivalent to: return compare(pos1, n1, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(str));
constexpr int compare(size_type pos1, size_type n1, const basic_string& str, size_type pos2, size_type n2 = npos) const;
Effects: Equivalent to: return compare(pos1, n1, basic_string_view<charT, traits>(str), pos2, n2);
constexpr int compare(const charT* s) const;
Effects: Equivalent to: return compare(basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(s));
constexpr int compare(size_type pos, size_type n1, const charT* s) const;
Effects: Equivalent to: return compare(pos, n1, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(s));
constexpr int compare(size_type pos, size_type n1, const charT* s, size_type n2) const;
Effects: Equivalent to: return compare(pos, n1, basic_­string_­view<charT, traits>(s, n2));

21.3.3.8.5 basic_­string​::​starts_­with [string.starts.with]

constexpr bool starts_with(basic_string_view<charT, traits> x) const noexcept; constexpr bool starts_with(charT x) const noexcept; constexpr bool starts_with(const charT* x) const;
Effects: Equivalent to: return basic_string_view<charT, traits>(data(), size()).starts_with(x);

21.3.3.8.6 basic_­string​::​ends_­with [string.ends.with]

constexpr bool ends_with(basic_string_view<charT, traits> x) const noexcept; constexpr bool ends_with(charT x) const noexcept; constexpr bool ends_with(const charT* x) const;
Effects: Equivalent to: return basic_string_view<charT, traits>(data(), size()).ends_with(x);