11 Classes [class]

11.3 Class members [class.mem]

11.3.9 Bit-fields [class.bit]

The optional attribute-specifier-seq appertains to the entity being declared.
A bit-field shall not be a static member.
A bit-field shall have integral or enumeration type; the bit-field semantic property is not part of the type of the class member.
The constant-expression shall be an integral constant expression with a value greater than or equal to zero and is called the width of the bit-field.
If the width of a bit-field is larger than the width of the bit-field's type (or, in case of an enumeration type, of its underlying type), the extra bits are padding bits ([basic.types]).
Allocation of bit-fields within a class object is implementation-defined.
Alignment of bit-fields is implementation-defined.
Bit-fields are packed into some addressable allocation unit.
Note
:
Bit-fields straddle allocation units on some machines and not on others.
Bit-fields are assigned right-to-left on some machines, left-to-right on others.
— end note
 ]
A declaration for a bit-field that omits the identifier declares an unnamed bit-field.
Unnamed bit-fields are not members and cannot be initialized.
An unnamed bit-field shall not be declared with a cv-qualified type.
Note
:
An unnamed bit-field is useful for padding to conform to externally-imposed layouts.
— end note
 ]
As a special case, an unnamed bit-field with a width of zero specifies alignment of the next bit-field at an allocation unit boundary.
Only when declaring an unnamed bit-field may the width be zero.
The address-of operator & shall not be applied to a bit-field, so there are no pointers to bit-fields.
A non-const reference shall not be bound to a bit-field ([dcl.init.ref]).
Note
:
If the initializer for a reference of type const T& is an lvalue that refers to a bit-field, the reference is bound to a temporary initialized to hold the value of the bit-field; the reference is not bound to the bit-field directly.
— end note
 ]
If a value of integral type (other than bool) is stored into a bit-field of width N and the value would be representable in a hypothetical signed or unsigned integer type with width N and the same signedness as the bit-field's type, the original value and the value of the bit-field compare equal.
If the value true or false is stored into a bit-field of type bool of any size (including a one bit bit-field), the original bool value and the value of the bit-field compare equal.
If a value of an enumeration type is stored into a bit-field of the same type and the width is large enough to hold all the values of that enumeration type ([dcl.enum]), the original value and the value of the bit-field compare equal.
Example
:
enum BOOL { FALSE=0, TRUE=1 };
struct A {
  BOOL b:1;
};
A a;
void f() {
  a.b = TRUE;
  if (a.b == TRUE)              // yields true
    { /* ... */ }
}
— end example
 ]