Annex C (informative) Compatibility [diff]

C.3 C++ and ISO C++ 2011 [diff.cpp11]

This subclause lists the differences between C++ and ISO C++ 2011 (ISO/IEC 14882:2011, Programming Languages — C++), by the chapters of this document.

C.3.1 [lex]: lexical conventions [diff.cpp11.lex]

Affected subclause: [lex.ppnumber]
Change: pp-number can contain one or more single quotes.

Rationale: Necessary to enable single quotes as digit separators.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2011 code may fail to compile or may change meaning in this International Standard.
For example, the following code is valid both in C++ 2011 and in this International Standard, but the macro invocation produces different outcomes because the single quotes delimit a character literal in C++ 2011, whereas they are digit separators in this International Standard:
#define M(x, ...) __VA_ARGS__
int x[2] = { M(1'2,3'4, 5) };
// int x[2] = { 5 };      — C++ 2011
// int x[2] = { 3'4, 5 }; — this International Standard

C.3.2 [basic]: basic concepts [diff.cpp11.basic]

Affected subclause: [basic.stc.dynamic.deallocation]
Change: New usual (non-placement) deallocator.

Rationale: Required for sized deallocation.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2011 code could declare a global placement allocation function and deallocation function as follows:
void* operator new(std::size_t, std::size_t);
void operator delete(void*, std::size_t) noexcept;
In this International Standard, however, the declaration of operator delete might match a predefined usual (non-placement) operator delete ([basic.stc.dynamic]).
If so, the program is ill-formed, as it was for class member allocation functions and deallocation functions ([expr.new]).

C.3.3 [expr]: expressions [diff.cpp11.expr]

Affected subclause: [expr.cond]
Change: A conditional expression with a throw expression as its second or third operand keeps the type and value category of the other operand.

Rationale: Formerly mandated conversions (lvalue-to-rvalue, array-to-pointer, and function-to-pointer standard conversions), especially the creation of the temporary due to lvalue-to-rvalue conversion, were considered gratuitous and surprising.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2011 code that relies on the conversions may behave differently in this International Standard:
struct S {
  int x = 1;
  void mf() { x = 2; }
};
int f(bool cond) {
  S s;
  (cond ? s : throw 0).mf();
  return s.x;
}
In C++ 2011, f(true) returns 1.
In this International Standard, it returns 2.
sizeof(true ? "" : throw 0)
In C++ 2011, the expression yields sizeof(const char*).
In this International Standard, it yields sizeof(const char[1]).

C.3.4 [dcl.dcl]: declarations [diff.cpp11.dcl.dcl]

Affected subclause: [dcl.constexpr]
Change: constexpr non-static member functions are not implicitly const member functions.

Rationale: Necessary to allow constexpr member functions to mutate the object.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2011 code may fail to compile in this International Standard.
For example, the following code is valid in C++ 2011 but invalid in this International Standard because it declares the same member function twice with different return types:
struct S {
  constexpr const int &f();
  int &f();
};

C.3.5 [dcl.decl]: declarators [diff.cpp11.dcl.decl]

Affected subclause: [dcl.init.aggr]
Change: Classes with default member initializers can be aggregates.

Rationale: Necessary to allow default member initializers to be used by aggregate initialization.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2011 code may fail to compile or may change meaning in this International Standard.
struct S { // Aggregate in C++ 2014 onwards.
  int m = 1;
};
struct X {
  operator int();
  operator S();
};
X a{};
S b{a};  // uses copy constructor in C++ 2011,
         // performs aggregate initialization in this International Standard

C.3.6 [library]: library introduction [diff.cpp11.library]

Affected subclause: [headers]
Change: New header.

Rationale: New functionality.

Effect on original feature: The C++ header <shared_­mutex> is new.
Valid C++ 2011 code that #includes a header with that name may be invalid in this International Standard.

C.3.7 [input.output]: input/output library [diff.cpp11.input.output]

Affected subclause: [c.files]
Change: gets is not defined.

Rationale: Use of gets is considered dangerous.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2011 code that uses the gets function may fail to compile in this International Standard.