23 General utilities library [utilities]

23.14 Function objects [function.objects]

23.14.1 Header <functional> synopsis [functional.syn]

namespace std {
  // [func.invoke], invoke
  template <class F, class... Args>
    invoke_result_t<F, Args...> invoke(F&& f, Args&&... args)
      noexcept(is_nothrow_invocable_v<F, Args...>);

  // [refwrap], reference_­wrapper
  template <class T> class reference_wrapper;

  template <class T> reference_wrapper<T> ref(T&) noexcept;
  template <class T> reference_wrapper<const T> cref(const T&) noexcept;
  template <class T> void ref(const T&&) = delete;
  template <class T> void cref(const T&&) = delete;

  template <class T> reference_wrapper<T> ref(reference_wrapper<T>) noexcept;
  template <class T> reference_wrapper<const T> cref(reference_wrapper<T>) noexcept;

  // [arithmetic.operations], arithmetic operations
  template <class T = void> struct plus;
  template <class T = void> struct minus;
  template <class T = void> struct multiplies;
  template <class T = void> struct divides;
  template <class T = void> struct modulus;
  template <class T = void> struct negate;
  template <> struct plus<void>;
  template <> struct minus<void>;
  template <> struct multiplies<void>;
  template <> struct divides<void>;
  template <> struct modulus<void>;
  template <> struct negate<void>;

  // [comparisons], comparisons
  template <class T = void> struct equal_to;
  template <class T = void> struct not_equal_to;
  template <class T = void> struct greater;
  template <class T = void> struct less;
  template <class T = void> struct greater_equal;
  template <class T = void> struct less_equal;
  template <> struct equal_to<void>;
  template <> struct not_equal_to<void>;
  template <> struct greater<void>;
  template <> struct less<void>;
  template <> struct greater_equal<void>;
  template <> struct less_equal<void>;

  // [logical.operations], logical operations
  template <class T = void> struct logical_and;
  template <class T = void> struct logical_or;
  template <class T = void> struct logical_not;
  template <> struct logical_and<void>;
  template <> struct logical_or<void>;
  template <> struct logical_not<void>;

  // [bitwise.operations], bitwise operations
  template <class T = void> struct bit_and;
  template <class T = void> struct bit_or;
  template <class T = void> struct bit_xor;
  template <class T = void> struct bit_not;
  template <> struct bit_and<void>;
  template <> struct bit_or<void>;
  template <> struct bit_xor<void>;
  template <> struct bit_not<void>;

  // [func.not_fn], function template not_­fn
  template <class F> unspecified not_fn(F&& f);

  // [func.bind], bind
  template<class T> struct is_bind_expression;
  template<class T> struct is_placeholder;

  template<class F, class... BoundArgs>
    unspecified bind(F&&, BoundArgs&&...);
  template<class R, class F, class... BoundArgs>
    unspecified bind(F&&, BoundArgs&&...);

  namespace placeholders {
    // M is the implementation-defined number of placeholders
    see below _1;
    see below _2;
               .
               .
               .
    see below _M;
  }

  // [func.memfn], member function adaptors
  template<class R, class T>
    unspecified mem_fn(R T::*) noexcept;

  // [func.wrap], polymorphic function wrappers
  class bad_function_call;

  template<class> class function; // not defined
  template<class R, class... ArgTypes> class function<R(ArgTypes...)>;

  template<class R, class... ArgTypes>
    void swap(function<R(ArgTypes...)>&, function<R(ArgTypes...)>&) noexcept;

  template<class R, class... ArgTypes>
    bool operator==(const function<R(ArgTypes...)>&, nullptr_t) noexcept;
  template<class R, class... ArgTypes>
    bool operator==(nullptr_t, const function<R(ArgTypes...)>&) noexcept;
  template<class R, class... ArgTypes>
    bool operator!=(const function<R(ArgTypes...)>&, nullptr_t) noexcept;
  template<class R, class... ArgTypes>
    bool operator!=(nullptr_t, const function<R(ArgTypes...)>&) noexcept;

  // [func.search], searchers
  template<class ForwardIterator, class BinaryPredicate = equal_to<>>
    class default_searcher;

  template<class RandomAccessIterator,
           class Hash = hash<typename iterator_traits<RandomAccessIterator>::value_type>,
           class BinaryPredicate = equal_to<>>
    class boyer_moore_searcher;

  template<class RandomAccessIterator,
           class Hash = hash<typename iterator_traits<RandomAccessIterator>::value_type>,
           class BinaryPredicate = equal_to<>>
    class boyer_moore_horspool_searcher;

  // [unord.hash], hash function primary template
  template <class T>
    struct hash;

  // [func.bind], function object binders
  template <class T>
    inline constexpr bool is_bind_expression_v = is_bind_expression<T>::value;
  template <class T>
    inline constexpr int is_placeholder_v = is_placeholder<T>::value;
}
[Example
:
If a C++ program wants to have a by-element addition of two vectors a and b containing double and put the result into a, it can do:
transform(a.begin(), a.end(), b.begin(), a.begin(), plus<double>());
end example
]
[Example
:
To negate every element of a:
transform(a.begin(), a.end(), a.begin(), negate<double>());
end example
]