28 Localization library [localization]

28.4 Standard locale categories [locale.categories]

28.4.5 The collate category [category.collate]

28.4.5.1 Class template collate [locale.collate]

28.4.5.1.1 General [locale.collate.general]

namespace std { template<class charT> class collate : public locale::facet { public: using char_type = charT; using string_type = basic_string<charT>; explicit collate(size_t refs = 0); int compare(const charT* low1, const charT* high1, const charT* low2, const charT* high2) const; string_type transform(const charT* low, const charT* high) const; long hash(const charT* low, const charT* high) const; static locale::id id; protected: ~collate(); virtual int do_compare(const charT* low1, const charT* high1, const charT* low2, const charT* high2) const; virtual string_type do_transform(const charT* low, const charT* high) const; virtual long do_hash (const charT* low, const charT* high) const; }; }
The class collate<charT> provides features for use in the collation (comparison) and hashing of strings.
A locale member function template, operator(), uses the collate facet to allow a locale to act directly as the predicate argument for standard algorithms ([algorithms]) and containers operating on strings.
The specializations required in Table 102 ([locale.category]), namely collate<char> and collate<wchar_­t>, apply lexicographic ordering.
Each function compares a string of characters *p in the range [low, high).

28.4.5.1.2 Members [locale.collate.members]

int compare(const charT* low1, const charT* high1, const charT* low2, const charT* high2) const;
Returns: do_­compare(low1, high1, low2, high2).
string_type transform(const charT* low, const charT* high) const;
Returns: do_­transform(low, high).
long hash(const charT* low, const charT* high) const;
Returns: do_­hash(low, high).

28.4.5.1.3 Virtual functions [locale.collate.virtuals]

int do_compare(const charT* low1, const charT* high1, const charT* low2, const charT* high2) const;
Returns: 1 if the first string is greater than the second, -1 if less, zero otherwise.
The specializations required in Table 102 ([locale.category]), namely collate<char> and collate<wchar_­t>, implement a lexicographical comparison.
string_type do_transform(const charT* low, const charT* high) const;
Returns: A basic_­string<charT> value that, compared lexicographically with the result of calling transform() on another string, yields the same result as calling do_­compare() on the same two strings.272
long do_hash(const charT* low, const charT* high) const;
Returns: An integer value equal to the result of calling hash() on any other string for which do_­compare() returns 0 (equal) when passed the two strings.
[Note 1:
The probability that the result equals that for another string which does not compare equal should be very small, approaching (1.0/numeric_­limits<unsigned long>​::​max()).
— end note]
This function is useful when one string is being compared to many other strings.