20 Library introduction [library]

20.5 Library-wide requirements [requirements]

20.5.4 Constraints on programs [constraints]

20.5.4.2 Namespace use [namespace.constraints]

20.5.4.2.1 Namespace std [namespace.std]

The behavior of a C++ program is undefined if it adds declarations or definitions to namespace std or to a namespace within namespace std unless otherwise specified.
A program may add a template specialization for any standard library template to namespace std only if the declaration depends on a user-defined type and the specialization meets the standard library requirements for the original template and is not explicitly prohibited.177
The behavior of a C++ program is undefined if it declares an explicit or partial specialization of any standard library variable template, except where explicitly permitted by the specification of that variable template.
The behavior of a C++ program is undefined if it declares
  • an explicit specialization of any member function of a standard library class template, or
  • an explicit specialization of any member function template of a standard library class or class template, or
  • an explicit or partial specialization of any member class template of a standard library class or class template, or
  • a deduction guide for any standard library class template.
A program may explicitly instantiate a template defined in the standard library only if the declaration depends on the name of a user-defined type and the instantiation meets the standard library requirements for the original template.
A translation unit shall not declare namespace std to be an inline namespace ([namespace.def]).
Any library code that instantiates other library templates must be prepared to work adequately with any user-supplied specialization that meets the minimum requirements of this document.