28 Input/output library [input.output]

28.7 Formatting and manipulators [iostream.format]

28.7.5 Output streams [output.streams]

28.7.5.2 Formatted output functions [ostream.formatted]

28.7.5.2.2 Arithmetic inserters [ostream.inserters.arithmetic]

operator<<(bool val); operator<<(short val); operator<<(unsigned short val); operator<<(int val); operator<<(unsigned int val); operator<<(long val); operator<<(unsigned long val); operator<<(long long val); operator<<(unsigned long long val); operator<<(float val); operator<<(double val); operator<<(long double val); operator<<(const void* val);
Effects: The classes num_­get<> and num_­put<> handle locale-dependent numeric formatting and parsing.
These inserter functions use the imbued locale value to perform numeric formatting.
When val is of type bool, long, unsigned long, long long, unsigned long long, double, long double, or const void*, the formatting conversion occurs as if it performed the following code fragment:
bool failed = use_facet<
  num_put<charT, ostreambuf_iterator<charT, traits>>
    >(getloc()).put(*this, *this, fill(), val).failed();
When val is of type short the formatting conversion occurs as if it performed the following code fragment:
ios_base::fmtflags baseflags = ios_base::flags() & ios_base::basefield;
bool failed = use_facet<
  num_put<charT, ostreambuf_iterator<charT, traits>>
    >(getloc()).put(*this, *this, fill(),
    baseflags == ios_base::oct || baseflags == ios_base::hex
      ? static_cast<long>(static_cast<unsigned short>(val))
      : static_cast<long>(val)).failed();
When val is of type int the formatting conversion occurs as if it performed the following code fragment:
ios_base::fmtflags baseflags = ios_base::flags() & ios_base::basefield;
bool failed = use_facet<
  num_put<charT, ostreambuf_iterator<charT, traits>>
    >(getloc()).put(*this, *this, fill(),
    baseflags == ios_base::oct || baseflags == ios_base::hex
      ? static_cast<long>(static_cast<unsigned int>(val))
      : static_cast<long>(val)).failed();
When val is of type unsigned short or unsigned int the formatting conversion occurs as if it performed the following code fragment:
bool failed = use_facet<
  num_put<charT, ostreambuf_iterator<charT, traits>>
    >(getloc()).put(*this, *this, fill(),
      static_cast<unsigned long>(val)).failed();
When val is of type float the formatting conversion occurs as if it performed the following code fragment:
bool failed = use_facet<
  num_put<charT, ostreambuf_iterator<charT, traits>>
    >(getloc()).put(*this, *this, fill(),
      static_cast<double>(val)).failed();
The first argument provides an object of the ostreambuf_­iterator<> class which is an iterator for class basic_­ostream<>.
It bypasses ostreams and uses streambufs directly.
Class locale relies on these types as its interface to iostreams, since for flexibility it has been abstracted away from direct dependence on ostream.
The second parameter is a reference to the base class subobject of type ios_­base.
It provides formatting specifications such as field width, and a locale from which to obtain other facets.
If failed is true then does setstate(badbit), which may throw an exception, and returns.
Returns: *this.