16 Overloading [over]

16.3 Overload resolution [over.match]

16.3.3 Best viable function [over.match.best]

16.3.3.1 Implicit conversion sequences [over.best.ics]

16.3.3.1.2 User-defined conversion sequences [over.ics.user]

A user-defined conversion sequence consists of an initial standard conversion sequence followed by a user-defined conversion ([class.conv]) followed by a second standard conversion sequence.
If the user-defined conversion is specified by a constructor, the initial standard conversion sequence converts the source type to the type required by the argument of the constructor.
If the user-defined conversion is specified by a conversion function, the initial standard conversion sequence converts the source type to the implicit object parameter of the conversion function.
The second standard conversion sequence converts the result of the user-defined conversion to the target type for the sequence.
Since an implicit conversion sequence is an initialization, the special rules for initialization by user-defined conversion apply when selecting the best user-defined conversion for a user-defined conversion sequence (see [over.match.best] and [over.best.ics]).
If the user-defined conversion is specified by a specialization of a conversion function template, the second standard conversion sequence shall have exact match rank.
A conversion of an expression of class type to the same class type is given Exact Match rank, and a conversion of an expression of class type to a base class of that type is given Conversion rank, in spite of the fact that a constructor (i.e., a user-defined conversion function) is called for those cases.