Any of the functions defined in the C++ standard library can report a failure by throwing an exception of a type described in its Throws: paragraph, or of a type derived from a type named in the Throws: paragraph that would be caught by an exception handler for the base type.
Destructor operations defined in the C++ standard library shall not throw exceptions. Every destructor in the C++ standard library shall behave as if it had a non-throwing exception specification.
Functions defined in the C++ standard library that do not have a Throws: paragraph but do have a potentially-throwing exception specification may throw implementation-defined exceptions.185 Implementations should report errors by throwing exceptions of or derived from the standard exception classes ([bad.alloc], [support.exception], [std.exceptions]).
An implementation may strengthen the exception specification for a non-virtual function by adding a non-throwing exception specification.
That is, the C library functions can all be treated as if they are marked noexcept. This allows implementations to make performance optimizations based on the absence of exceptions at runtime.