17 Templates [temp]

17.6 Template declarations [temp.decls]

17.6.5 Class template partial specializations [temp.class.spec]

17.6.5.3 Members of class template specializations [temp.class.spec.mfunc]

The template parameter list of a member of a class template partial specialization shall match the template parameter list of the class template partial specialization.
The template argument list of a member of a class template partial specialization shall match the template argument list of the class template partial specialization.
A class template specialization is a distinct template.
The members of the class template partial specialization are unrelated to the members of the primary template.
Class template partial specialization members that are used in a way that requires a definition shall be defined; the definitions of members of the primary template are never used as definitions for members of a class template partial specialization.
An explicit specialization of a member of a class template partial specialization is declared in the same way as an explicit specialization of the primary template.
[Example
:
// primary class template
template<class T, int I> struct A {
  void f();
};

// member of primary class template
template<class T, int I> void A<T,I>::f() { }

// class template partial specialization
template<class T> struct A<T,2> {
  void f();
  void g();
  void h();
};

// member of class template partial specialization
template<class T> void A<T,2>::g() { }

// explicit specialization
template<> void A<char,2>::h() { }

int main() {
  A<char,0> a0;
  A<char,2> a2;
  a0.f();           // OK, uses definition of primary template's member
  a2.g();           // OK, uses definition of partial specialization's member
  a2.h();           // OK, uses definition of explicit specialization's member
  a2.f();           // ill-formed, no definition of f for A<T,2>; the primary template is not used here
}
end example
]
If a member template of a class template is partially specialized, the member template partial specializations are member templates of the enclosing class template; if the enclosing class template is instantiated ([temp.inst], [temp.explicit]), a declaration for every member template partial specialization is also instantiated as part of creating the members of the class template specialization.
If the primary member template is explicitly specialized for a given (implicit) specialization of the enclosing class template, the partial specializations of the member template are ignored for this specialization of the enclosing class template.
If a partial specialization of the member template is explicitly specialized for a given (implicit) specialization of the enclosing class template, the primary member template and its other partial specializations are still considered for this specialization of the enclosing class template.
[Example
:
template<class T> struct A {
  template<class T2> struct B {};                     // #1
  template<class T2> struct B<T2*> {};                // #2
};

template<> template<class T2> struct A<short>::B {};  // #3

A<char>::B<int*>  abcip;                              // uses #2
A<short>::B<int*> absip;                              // uses #3
A<char>::B<int>  abci;                                // uses #1
end example
]