29 Numerics library [numerics]

29.7 Numeric arrays [numarray]

29.7.2 Class template valarray [template.valarray]

29.7.2.1 Class template valarray overview [template.valarray.overview]

namespace std {
  template<class T> class valarray {
  public:
    using value_type = T;

    // [valarray.cons], construct/destroy
    valarray();
    explicit valarray(size_t);
    valarray(const T&, size_t);
    valarray(const T*, size_t);
    valarray(const valarray&);
    valarray(valarray&&) noexcept;
    valarray(const slice_array<T>&);
    valarray(const gslice_array<T>&);
    valarray(const mask_array<T>&);
    valarray(const indirect_array<T>&);
    valarray(initializer_list<T>);
    ~valarray();

    // [valarray.assign], assignment
    valarray& operator=(const valarray&);
    valarray& operator=(valarray&&) noexcept;
    valarray& operator=(initializer_list<T>);
    valarray& operator=(const T&);
    valarray& operator=(const slice_array<T>&);
    valarray& operator=(const gslice_array<T>&);
    valarray& operator=(const mask_array<T>&);
    valarray& operator=(const indirect_array<T>&);

    // [valarray.access], element access
    const T&          operator[](size_t) const;
    T&                operator[](size_t);

    // [valarray.sub], subset operations
    valarray          operator[](slice) const;
    slice_array<T>    operator[](slice);
    valarray          operator[](const gslice&) const;
    gslice_array<T>   operator[](const gslice&);
    valarray          operator[](const valarray<bool>&) const;
    mask_array<T>     operator[](const valarray<bool>&);
    valarray          operator[](const valarray<size_t>&) const;
    indirect_array<T> operator[](const valarray<size_t>&);

    // [valarray.unary], unary operators
    valarray operator+() const;
    valarray operator-() const;
    valarray operator~() const;
    valarray<bool> operator!() const;

    // [valarray.cassign], compound assignment
    valarray& operator*= (const T&);
    valarray& operator/= (const T&);
    valarray& operator%= (const T&);
    valarray& operator+= (const T&);
    valarray& operator-= (const T&);
    valarray& operator^= (const T&);
    valarray& operator&= (const T&);
    valarray& operator|= (const T&);
    valarray& operator<<=(const T&);
    valarray& operator>>=(const T&);

    valarray& operator*= (const valarray&);
    valarray& operator/= (const valarray&);
    valarray& operator%= (const valarray&);
    valarray& operator+= (const valarray&);
    valarray& operator-= (const valarray&);
    valarray& operator^= (const valarray&);
    valarray& operator|= (const valarray&);
    valarray& operator&= (const valarray&);
    valarray& operator<<=(const valarray&);
    valarray& operator>>=(const valarray&);

    // [valarray.members], member functions
    void swap(valarray&) noexcept;

    size_t size() const;

    T sum() const;
    T min() const;
    T max() const;

    valarray shift (int) const;
    valarray cshift(int) const;
    valarray apply(T func(T)) const;
    valarray apply(T func(const T&)) const;
    void resize(size_t sz, T c = T());
  };

  template<class T, size_t cnt> valarray(const T(&)[cnt], size_t) -> valarray<T>;
}
The class template valarray<T> is a one-dimensional smart array, with elements numbered sequentially from zero.
It is a representation of the mathematical concept of an ordered set of values.
For convenience, an object of type valarray<T> is referred to as an “array” throughout the remainder of [numarray].
The illusion of higher dimensionality may be produced by the familiar idiom of computed indices, together with the powerful subsetting capabilities provided by the generalized subscript operators.277
An implementation is permitted to qualify any of the functions declared in <valarray> as inline.
The intent is to specify an array template that has the minimum functionality necessary to address aliasing ambiguities and the proliferation of temporary objects.
Thus, the valarray template is neither a matrix class nor a field class.
However, it is a very useful building block for designing such classes.