23 General utilities library [utilities]

23.11 Smart pointers [smartptr]

23.11.2 Shared-ownership pointers [util.smartptr]

23.11.2.2 Class template shared_­ptr [util.smartptr.shared]

23.11.2.2.6 shared_­ptr creation [util.smartptr.shared.create]

The common requirements that apply to all make_­shared and allocate_­shared overloads, unless specified otherwise, are described below.
template <class T, ...> shared_ptr<T> make_­shared(args); template <class T, class A, ...> shared_ptr<T> allocate_­shared(const A& a, args);
Requires: A shall be an allocator.
Effects: Allocates memory for an object of type T (or U[N] when T is U[], where N is determined from args as specified by the concrete overload).
The object is initialized from args as specified by the concrete overload.
The allocate_­shared templates use a copy of a (rebound for an unspecified value_­type) to allocate memory.
If an exception is thrown, the functions have no effect.
Returns: A shared_­ptr instance that stores and owns the address of the newly constructed object.
Postconditions: r.get() != 0 && r.use_­count() == 1, where r is the return value.
Throws: bad_­alloc, or an exception thrown from allocate or from the initialization of the object.
Remarks:
  • Implementations should perform no more than one memory allocation.
    [Note
    :
    This provides efficiency equivalent to an intrusive smart pointer.
    end note
    ]
  • When an object of an array type U is specified to have an initial value of u (of the same type), this shall be interpreted to mean that each array element of the object has as its initial value the corresponding element from u.
  • When an object of an array type is specified to have a default initial value, this shall be interpreted to mean that each array element of the object has a default initial value.
  • When a (sub)object of a non-array type U is specified to have an initial value of v, or U(l...), where l... is a list of constructor arguments, make_­shared shall initialize this (sub)object via the expression ​::​new(pv) U(v) or ​::​new(pv) U(l...) respectively, where pv has type void* and points to storage suitable to hold an object of type U.
  • When a (sub)object of a non-array type U is specified to have an initial value of v, or U(l...), where l... is a list of constructor arguments, allocate_­shared shall initialize this (sub)object via the expression
    • allocator_­traits<A2>​::​construct(a2, pv, v) or
    • allocator_­traits<A2>​::​construct(a2, pv, l...)
    respectively, where pv points to storage suitable to hold an object of type U and a2 of type A2 is a rebound copy of the allocator a passed to allocate_­shared such that its value_­type is U.
  • When a (sub)object of non-array type U is specified to have a default initial value, make_­shared shall initialize this (sub)object via the expression ​::​new(pv) U(), where pv has type void* and points to storage suitable to hold an object of type U.
  • When a (sub)object of non-array type U is specified to have a default initial value, allocate_­shared shall initialize this (sub)object via the expression allocator_­traits<A2>​::​construct(a2, pv), where pv points to storage suitable to hold an object of type U and a2 of type A2 is a rebound copy of the allocator a passed to allocate_­shared such that its value_­type is U.
  • Array elements are initialized in ascending order of their addresses.
  • When the lifetime of the object managed by the return value ends, or when the initialization of an array element throws an exception, the initialized elements should be destroyed in the reverse order of their construction.
[Note
:
These functions will typically allocate more memory than sizeof(T) to allow for internal bookkeeping structures such as reference counts.
end note
]
template <class T, class... Args> shared_ptr<T> make_­shared(Args&&... args); // T is not array template <class T, class A, class... Args> shared_ptr<T> allocate_­shared(const A& a, Args&&... args); // T is not array
Returns: A shared_­ptr to an object of type T with an initial value T(forward<Args>(args)...).
Remarks: These overloads shall only participate in overload resolution when T is not an array type.
The shared_­ptr constructors called by these functions enable shared_­from_­this with the address of the newly constructed object of type T.
[Example
:
shared_ptr<int> p = make_shared<int>(); // shared_­ptr to int()
shared_ptr<vector<int>> q = make_shared<vector<int>>(16, 1);
  // shared_­ptr to vector of 16 elements with value 1
end example
]
template <class T> shared_ptr<T> make_shared(size_t N); // T is U[] template <class T, class A> shared_ptr<T> allocate_shared(const A& a, size_t N); // T is U[]
Returns: A shared_­ptr to an object of type U[N] with a default initial value, where U is remove_­extent_­t<T>.
Remarks: These overloads shall only participate in overload resolution when T is of the form U[].
[Example
:
shared_ptr<double[]> p = make_shared<double[]>(1024);
  // shared_­ptr to a value-initialized double[1024]
shared_ptr<double[][2][2]> q = make_shared<double[][2][2]>(6);
  // shared_­ptr to a value-initialized double[6][2][2]
end example
]
template <class T> shared_ptr<T> make_shared(); // T is U[N] template <class T, class A> shared_ptr<T> allocate_shared(const A& a); // T is U[N]
Returns: A shared_­ptr to an object of type T with a default initial value.
Remarks: These overloads shall only participate in overload resolution when T is of the form U[N].
[Example
:
shared_ptr<double[1024]> p = make_shared<double[1024]>();
  // shared_­ptr to a value-initialized double[1024]
shared_ptr<double[6][2][2]> q = make_shared<double[6][2][2]>();
  // shared_­ptr to a value-initialized double[6][2][2]
end example
]
template<class T> shared_ptr<T> make_shared(size_t N, const remove_extent_t<T>& u); // T is U[] template<class T, class A> shared_ptr<T> allocate_shared(const A& a, size_t N, const remove_extent_t<T>& u); // T is U[]
Returns: A shared_­ptr to an object of type U[N], where U is remove_­extent_­t<T> and each array element has an initial value of u.
Remarks: These overloads shall only participate in overload resolution when T is of the form U[].
[Example
:
shared_ptr<double[]> p = make_shared<double[]>(1024, 1.0);
  // shared_­ptr to a double[1024], where each element is 1.0
shared_ptr<double[][2]> q = make_shared<double[][2]>(6, {1.0, 0.0});
  // shared_­ptr to a double[6][2], where each double[2] element is {1.0, 0.0}
shared_ptr<vector<int>[]> r = make_shared<vector<int>[]>(4, {1, 2});
  // shared_­ptr to a vector<int>[4], where each vector has contents {1, 2}
end example
]
template<class T> shared_ptr<T> make_shared(const remove_extent_t<T>& u); // T is U[N] template<class T, class A> shared_ptr<T> allocate_shared(const A& a, const remove_extent_t<T>& u); // T is U[N]
Returns: A shared_­ptr to an object of type T, where each array element of type remove_­extent_­t<T> has an initial value of u.
Remarks: These overloads shall only participate in overload resolution when T is of the form U[N].
[Example
:
shared_ptr<double[1024]> p = make_shared<double[1024]>(1.0);
  // shared_­ptr to a double[1024], where each element is 1.0
shared_ptr<double[6][2]> q = make_shared<double[6][2]>({1.0, 0.0});
  // shared_­ptr to a double[6][2], where each double[2] element is {1.0, 0.0}
shared_ptr<vector<int>[4]> r = make_shared<vector<int>[4]>({1, 2});
  // shared_­ptr to a vector<int>[4], where each vector has contents {1, 2}
end example
]