23 General utilities library [utilities]

23.2 Utility components [utility]

23.2.1 Header <utility> synopsis [utility.syn]

#include <initializer_list>     // see [initializer_list.syn]

namespace std {
  // [utility.swap], swap
  template<class T>
    void swap(T& a, T& b) noexcept(see below);
  template<class T, size_t N>
    void swap(T (&a)[N], T (&b)[N]) noexcept(is_nothrow_swappable_v<T>);

  // [utility.exchange], exchange
  template<class T, class U = T>
    constexpr T exchange(T& obj, U&& new_val);

  // [forward], forward/move
  template<class T>
    constexpr T&& forward(remove_reference_t<T>& t) noexcept;
  template<class T>
    constexpr T&& forward(remove_reference_t<T>&& t) noexcept;
  template<class T>
    constexpr remove_reference_t<T>&& move(T&&) noexcept;
  template<class T>
    constexpr conditional_t<
        !is_nothrow_move_constructible_v<T> && is_copy_constructible_v<T>, const T&, T&&>
      move_if_noexcept(T& x) noexcept;

  // [utility.as_const], as_­const
  template<class T>
    constexpr add_const_t<T>& as_const(T& t) noexcept;
  template<class T>
    void as_const(const T&&) = delete;

  // [declval], declval
  template<class T>
    add_rvalue_reference_t<T> declval() noexcept;  // as unevaluated operand

  // [intseq], Compile-time integer sequences
  template<class T, T...>
    struct integer_sequence;
  template<size_t... I>
    using index_­sequence = integer_sequence<size_t, I...>;

  template<class T, T N>
    using make_integer_sequence = integer_sequence<T, see below>;
  template<size_t N>
    using make_­index_­sequence = make_integer_sequence<size_t, N>;

  template<class... T>
    using index_­sequence_­for = make_index_sequence<sizeof...(T)>;

  // [pairs], class template pair
  template<class T1, class T2>
    struct pair;

  // [pairs.spec], pair specialized algorithms
  template<class T1, class T2>
    constexpr bool operator==(const pair<T1, T2>&, const pair<T1, T2>&);
  template<class T1, class T2>
    constexpr bool operator< (const pair<T1, T2>&, const pair<T1, T2>&);
  template<class T1, class T2>
    constexpr bool operator!=(const pair<T1, T2>&, const pair<T1, T2>&);
  template<class T1, class T2>
    constexpr bool operator> (const pair<T1, T2>&, const pair<T1, T2>&);
  template<class T1, class T2>
    constexpr bool operator>=(const pair<T1, T2>&, const pair<T1, T2>&);
  template<class T1, class T2>
    constexpr bool operator<=(const pair<T1, T2>&, const pair<T1, T2>&);

  template<class T1, class T2>
    void swap(pair<T1, T2>& x, pair<T1, T2>& y) noexcept(noexcept(x.swap(y)));

  template<class T1, class T2>
    constexpr see below make_pair(T1&&, T2&&);

  // [pair.astuple], tuple-like access to pair
  template<class T> class tuple_size;
  template<size_t I, class T> class tuple_element;

  template<class T1, class T2> struct tuple_size<pair<T1, T2>>;
  template<size_t I, class T1, class T2> struct tuple_element<I, pair<T1, T2>>;

  template<size_t I, class T1, class T2>
    constexpr tuple_element_t<I, pair<T1, T2>>& get(pair<T1, T2>&) noexcept;
  template<size_t I, class T1, class T2>
    constexpr tuple_element_t<I, pair<T1, T2>>&& get(pair<T1, T2>&&) noexcept;
  template<size_t I, class T1, class T2>
    constexpr const tuple_element_t<I, pair<T1, T2>>& get(const pair<T1, T2>&) noexcept;
  template<size_t I, class T1, class T2>
    constexpr const tuple_element_t<I, pair<T1, T2>>&& get(const pair<T1, T2>&&) noexcept;
  template<class T1, class T2>
    constexpr T1& get(pair<T1, T2>& p) noexcept;
  template<class T1, class T2>
    constexpr const T1& get(const pair<T1, T2>& p) noexcept;
  template<class T1, class T2>
    constexpr T1&& get(pair<T1, T2>&& p) noexcept;
  template<class T1, class T2>
    constexpr const T1&& get(const pair<T1, T2>&& p) noexcept;
  template<class T2, class T1>
    constexpr T2& get(pair<T1, T2>& p) noexcept;
  template<class T2, class T1>
    constexpr const T2& get(const pair<T1, T2>& p) noexcept;
  template<class T2, class T1>
    constexpr T2&& get(pair<T1, T2>&& p) noexcept;
  template<class T2, class T1>
    constexpr const T2&& get(const pair<T1, T2>&& p) noexcept;

  // [pair.piecewise], pair piecewise construction
  struct piecewise_construct_t {
    explicit piecewise_construct_t() = default;
  };
  inline constexpr piecewise_construct_t piecewise_construct{};
  template<class... Types> class tuple;        // defined in <tuple>

  // in-place construction
  struct in_place_t {
    explicit in_place_t() = default;
  };
  inline constexpr in_place_t in_place{};
  template<class T>
    struct in_place_type_t {
      explicit in_place_type_t() = default;
    };
  template<class T> inline constexpr in_place_type_t<T> in_place_type{};
  template<size_t I>
    struct in_place_index_t {
      explicit in_place_index_t() = default;
    };
  template<size_t I> inline constexpr in_place_index_t<I> in_place_index{};
}
The header <utility> defines several types and function templates that are described in this Clause.
It also defines the template pair and various function templates that operate on pair objects.
The type chars_­format is a bitmask type with elements scientific, fixed, and hex.