23 General utilities library [utilities]

23.2 Utility components [utility]

23.2.8 Primitive numeric output conversion [utility.to.chars]

All functions named to_­chars convert value into a character string by successively filling the range [first, last), where [first, last) is required to be a valid range.
If the member ec of the return value is such that the value, when converted to bool, is false, the conversion was successful and the member ptr is the one-past-the-end pointer of the characters written.
Otherwise, the member ec has the value errc​::​value_­too_­large, the member ptr has the value last, and the contents of the range [first, last) are unspecified.
The functions that take a floating-point value but not a precision parameter ensure that the string representation consists of the smallest number of characters such that there is at least one digit before the radix point (if present) and parsing the representation using the corresponding from_­chars function recovers value exactly.
[Note
:
This guarantee applies only if to_­chars and from_­chars are executed on the same implementation.
end note
]
The functions taking a chars_­format parameter determine the conversion specifier for printf as follows: The conversion specifier is f if fmt is chars_­format​::​fixed, e if fmt is chars_­format​::​scientific, a (without leading "0x" in the result) if fmt is chars_­format​::​hex, and g if fmt is chars_­format​::​general.
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, see below value, int base = 10);
Requires: base has a value between 2 and 36 (inclusive).
Effects: The value of value is converted to a string of digits in the given base (with no redundant leading zeroes).
Digits in the range 10.
35 (inclusive) are represented as lowercase characters a.
z.
If value is less than zero, the representation starts with a minus sign.
Throws: Nothing.
Remarks: The implementation shall provide overloads for all signed and unsigned integer types and char as the type of the parameter value.
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, float value); to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, double value); to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, long double value);
Effects: value is converted to a string in the style of printf in the "C" locale.
The conversion specifier is f or e, chosen according to the requirement for a shortest representation (see above); a tie is resolved in favor of f.
Throws: Nothing.
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, float value, chars_format fmt); to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, double value, chars_format fmt); to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, long double value, chars_format fmt);
Requires: fmt has the value of one of the enumerators of chars_­format.
Effects: value is converted to a string in the style of printf in the "C" locale.
Throws: Nothing.
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, float value, chars_format fmt, int precision); to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, double value, chars_format fmt, int precision); to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, long double value, chars_format fmt, int precision);
Requires: fmt has the value of one of the enumerators of chars_­format.
Effects: value is converted to a string in the style of printf in the "C" locale with the given precision.
Throws: Nothing.
See also: ISO C 7.
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