26 Containers library [containers]

26.3 Sequence containers [sequences]

26.3.12 Class vector<bool> [vector.bool]

To optimize space allocation, a specialization of vector for bool elements is provided:
namespace std {
  template <class Allocator>
  class vector<bool, Allocator> {
  public:
    // types
    using value_type             = bool;
    using allocator_type         = Allocator;
    using pointer                = implementation-defined;
    using const_pointer          = implementation-defined;
    using const_reference        = bool;
    using size_type              = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using difference_type        = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using iterator               = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using const_iterator         = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using reverse_iterator       = std::reverse_iterator<iterator>;
    using const_reverse_iterator = std::reverse_iterator<const_iterator>;

    // bit reference
    class reference {
      friend class vector;
      reference() noexcept;
    public:
      ~reference();
      operator bool() const noexcept;
      reference& operator=(const bool x) noexcept;
      reference& operator=(const reference& x) noexcept;
      void flip() noexcept;     // flips the bit
    };

    // construct/copy/destroy
    vector() : vector(Allocator()) { }
    explicit vector(const Allocator&);
    explicit vector(size_type n, const Allocator& = Allocator());
    vector(size_type n, const bool& value, const Allocator& = Allocator());
    template <class InputIterator>
      vector(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, const Allocator& = Allocator());
    vector(const vector<bool, Allocator>& x);
    vector(vector<bool, Allocator>&& x);
    vector(const vector&, const Allocator&);
    vector(vector&&, const Allocator&);
    vector(initializer_list<bool>, const Allocator& = Allocator()));
    ~vector();
    vector<bool, Allocator>& operator=(const vector<bool, Allocator>& x);
    vector<bool, Allocator>& operator=(vector<bool, Allocator>&& x);
    vector& operator=(initializer_list<bool>);
    template <class InputIterator>
      void assign(InputIterator first, InputIterator last);
    void assign(size_type n, const bool& t);
    void assign(initializer_list<bool>);
    allocator_type get_allocator() const noexcept;

    // iterators
    iterator               begin() noexcept;
    const_iterator         begin() const noexcept;
    iterator               end() noexcept;
    const_iterator         end() const noexcept;
    reverse_iterator       rbegin() noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator rbegin() const noexcept;
    reverse_iterator       rend() noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator rend() const noexcept;

    const_iterator         cbegin() const noexcept;
    const_iterator         cend() const noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator crbegin() const noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator crend() const noexcept;

    // capacity
    bool      empty() const noexcept;
    size_type size() const noexcept;
    size_type max_size() const noexcept;
    size_type capacity() const noexcept;
    void      resize(size_type sz, bool c = false);
    void      reserve(size_type n);
    void      shrink_to_fit();

    // element access
    reference       operator[](size_type n);
    const_reference operator[](size_type n) const;
    const_reference at(size_type n) const;
    reference       at(size_type n);
    reference       front();
    const_reference front() const;
    reference       back();
    const_reference back() const;

    // modifiers
    template <class... Args> reference emplace_back(Args&&... args);
    void push_back(const bool& x);
    void pop_back();
    template <class... Args> iterator emplace(const_iterator position, Args&&... args);
    iterator insert(const_iterator position, const bool& x);
    iterator insert(const_iterator position, size_type n, const bool& x);
    template <class InputIterator>
      iterator insert(const_iterator position, InputIterator first, InputIterator last);
    iterator insert(const_iterator position, initializer_list<bool> il);

    iterator erase(const_iterator position);
    iterator erase(const_iterator first, const_iterator last);
    void swap(vector<bool, Allocator>&);
    static void swap(reference x, reference y) noexcept;
    void flip() noexcept;       // flips all bits
    void clear() noexcept;
  };
}
Unless described below, all operations have the same requirements and semantics as the primary vector template, except that operations dealing with the bool value type map to bit values in the container storage and allocator_­traits​::​construct is not used to construct these values.
There is no requirement that the data be stored as a contiguous allocation of bool values.
A space-optimized representation of bits is recommended instead.
reference is a class that simulates the behavior of references of a single bit in vector<bool>.
The conversion function returns true when the bit is set, and false otherwise.
The assignment operator sets the bit when the argument is (convertible to) true and clears it otherwise.
flip reverses the state of the bit.
void flip() noexcept;
Effects: Replaces each element in the container with its complement.
static void swap(reference x, reference y) noexcept;
Effects: Exchanges the contents of x and y as if by:
bool b = x;
x = y;
y = b;
template <class Allocator> struct hash<vector<bool, Allocator>>;
The specialization is enabled ([unord.hash]).