namespace std {
enum class memory_order : *unspecified* {
relaxed, consume, acquire, release, acq_rel, seq_cst
};
}

The enumeration memory_order specifies the detailed regular
(non-atomic) memory synchronization order as defined in
[intro.multithread] and may provide for operation ordering.

Its
enumerated values and their meanings are as follows:

- memory_order::relaxed: no operation orders memory.
- memory_order::release, memory_order::acq_rel, and memory_order::seq_cst: a store operation performs a release operation on the affected memory location.
- memory_order::consume: a load operation performs a consume operation on the affected memory location.
- memory_order::acquire, memory_order::acq_rel, and memory_order::seq_cst: a load operation performs an acquire operation on the affected memory location.

An atomic operation A that performs a release operation on an atomic
object M synchronizes with an atomic operation B that performs
an acquire operation on M and takes its value from any side effect in the
release sequence headed by A.

An atomic operation A on some atomic object M is
*coherence-ordered before*
another atomic operation B on M if

- A is a modification, and B reads the value stored by A, or
- A precedes B in the modification order of M, or
- A and B are not the same atomic read-modify-write operation, and there exists an atomic modification X of M such that A reads the value stored by X and X precedes B in the modification order of M, or
- there exists an atomic modification X of M such that A is coherence-ordered before X and X is coherence-ordered before B.

There is a single total order S
on all memory_order::seq_cst operations, including fences,
that satisfies the following constraints.

First, if A and B are
memory_order::seq_cst operations and
A strongly happens before B,
then A precedes B in S.

Second, for every pair of atomic operations A and
B on an object M,
where A is coherence-ordered before B,
the following four conditions are required to be satisfied by S:

- if A and B are both memory_order::seq_cst operations, then A precedes B in S; and
- if A is a memory_order::seq_cst operation and B happens before a memory_order::seq_cst fence Y, then A precedes Y in S; and
- if a memory_order::seq_cst fence X happens before A and B is a memory_order::seq_cst operation, then X precedes B in S; and
- if a memory_order::seq_cst fence X happens before A and B happens before a memory_order::seq_cst fence Y, then X precedes Y in S.

[*Note 5*: *end note*]

memory_order::seq_cst ensures sequential consistency only
for a program that is free of data races and
uses exclusively memory_order::seq_cst atomic operations.

Any use of weaker ordering will invalidate this guarantee
unless extreme care is used.

In many cases, memory_order::seq_cst atomic operations are reorderable
with respect to other atomic operations performed by the same thread.

— Implementations should ensure that no “out-of-thin-air” values are computed that
circularly depend on their own computation.

[*Note 6*:

For example, with x and y initially zero,
// Thread 1:
r1 = y.load(memory_order::relaxed);
x.store(r1, memory_order::relaxed);

// Thread 2:
r2 = x.load(memory_order::relaxed);
y.store(r2, memory_order::relaxed);
this recommendation discourages producing r1 == r2 == 42, since the store of 42 to y is only
possible if the store to x stores 42, which circularly depends on the
store to y storing 42.

Note that without this restriction, such an
execution is possible.

— [*Note 7*:

The recommendation similarly disallows r1 == r2 == 42 in the
following example, with x and y again initially zero:

// Thread 1:
r1 = x.load(memory_order::relaxed);
if (r1 == 42) y.store(42, memory_order::relaxed);

// Thread 2:
r2 = y.load(memory_order::relaxed);
if (r2 == 42) x.store(42, memory_order::relaxed);
— *end note*]

Atomic read-modify-write operations shall always read the last value
(in the modification order) written before the write associated with
the read-modify-write operation.

```
template<class T>
T kill_dependency(T y) noexcept;
```