24 Containers library [containers]

24.3 Sequence containers [sequences]

24.3.8 Class template deque [deque] Overview [deque.overview]

A deque is a sequence container that supports random access iterators.
In addition, it supports constant time insert and erase operations at the beginning or the end; insert and erase in the middle take linear time.
That is, a deque is especially optimized for pushing and popping elements at the beginning and end.
Storage management is handled automatically.
A deque meets all of the requirements of a container ([container.reqmts]), of a reversible container ([container.rev.reqmts]), of an allocator-aware container ([container.alloc.reqmts]), and of a sequence container, including the optional sequence container requirements ([sequence.reqmts]).
Descriptions are provided here only for operations on deque that are not described in one of these tables or for operations where there is additional semantic information.
namespace std { template<class T, class Allocator = allocator<T>> class deque { public: // types using value_type = T; using allocator_type = Allocator; using pointer = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::pointer; using const_pointer = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::const_pointer; using reference = value_type&; using const_reference = const value_type&; using size_type = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements] using difference_type = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements] using iterator = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements] using const_iterator = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements] using reverse_iterator = std::reverse_iterator<iterator>; using const_reverse_iterator = std::reverse_iterator<const_iterator>; // [deque.cons], construct/copy/destroy deque() : deque(Allocator()) { } explicit deque(const Allocator&); explicit deque(size_type n, const Allocator& = Allocator()); deque(size_type n, const T& value, const Allocator& = Allocator()); template<class InputIterator> deque(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, const Allocator& = Allocator()); template<container-compatible-range<T> R> deque(from_range_t, R&& rg, const Allocator& = Allocator()); deque(const deque& x); deque(deque&&); deque(const deque&, const type_identity_t<Allocator>&); deque(deque&&, const type_identity_t<Allocator>&); deque(initializer_list<T>, const Allocator& = Allocator()); ~deque(); deque& operator=(const deque& x); deque& operator=(deque&& x) noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::is_always_equal::value); deque& operator=(initializer_list<T>); template<class InputIterator> void assign(InputIterator first, InputIterator last); template<container-compatible-range<T> R> void assign_range(R&& rg); void assign(size_type n, const T& t); void assign(initializer_list<T>); allocator_type get_allocator() const noexcept; // iterators iterator begin() noexcept; const_iterator begin() const noexcept; iterator end() noexcept; const_iterator end() const noexcept; reverse_iterator rbegin() noexcept; const_reverse_iterator rbegin() const noexcept; reverse_iterator rend() noexcept; const_reverse_iterator rend() const noexcept; const_iterator cbegin() const noexcept; const_iterator cend() const noexcept; const_reverse_iterator crbegin() const noexcept; const_reverse_iterator crend() const noexcept; // [deque.capacity], capacity [[nodiscard]] bool empty() const noexcept; size_type size() const noexcept; size_type max_size() const noexcept; void resize(size_type sz); void resize(size_type sz, const T& c); void shrink_to_fit(); // element access reference operator[](size_type n); const_reference operator[](size_type n) const; reference at(size_type n); const_reference at(size_type n) const; reference front(); const_reference front() const; reference back(); const_reference back() const; // [deque.modifiers], modifiers template<class... Args> reference emplace_front(Args&&... args); template<class... Args> reference emplace_back(Args&&... args); template<class... Args> iterator emplace(const_iterator position, Args&&... args); void push_front(const T& x); void push_front(T&& x); template<container-compatible-range<T> R> void prepend_range(R&& rg); void push_back(const T& x); void push_back(T&& x); template<container-compatible-range<T> R> void append_range(R&& rg); iterator insert(const_iterator position, const T& x); iterator insert(const_iterator position, T&& x); iterator insert(const_iterator position, size_type n, const T& x); template<class InputIterator> iterator insert(const_iterator position, InputIterator first, InputIterator last); template<container-compatible-range<T> R> iterator insert_range(const_iterator position, R&& rg); iterator insert(const_iterator position, initializer_list<T>); void pop_front(); void pop_back(); iterator erase(const_iterator position); iterator erase(const_iterator first, const_iterator last); void swap(deque&) noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::is_always_equal::value); void clear() noexcept; }; template<class InputIterator, class Allocator = allocator<iter-value-type<InputIterator>>> deque(InputIterator, InputIterator, Allocator = Allocator()) -> deque<iter-value-type<InputIterator>, Allocator>; template<ranges::input_­range R, class Allocator = allocator<ranges::range_value_t<R>>> deque(from_range_t, R&&, Allocator = Allocator()) -> deque<ranges::range_value_t<R>, Allocator>; }