7 Expressions [expr]

7.2 Properties of expressions [expr.prop]

7.2.1 Value category [basic.lval]

Expressions are categorized according to the taxonomy in Figure 2.
categories expression expression glvalue glvalue expression->glvalue rvalue rvalue expression->rvalue lvalue lvalue glvalue->lvalue xvalue xvalue glvalue->xvalue rvalue->xvalue prvalue prvalue rvalue->prvalue
Figure 2: Expression category taxonomy  [fig:basic.lval]
  • A glvalue is an expression whose evaluation determines the identity of an object or function.
  • A prvalue is an expression whose evaluation initializes an object or computes the value of an operand of an operator, as specified by the context in which it appears, or an expression that has type cv void.
  • An xvalue is a glvalue that denotes an object whose resources can be reused (usually because it is near the end of its lifetime).
  • An lvalue is a glvalue that is not an xvalue.
  • An rvalue is a prvalue or an xvalue.
Every expression belongs to exactly one of the fundamental classifications in this taxonomy: lvalue, xvalue, or prvalue.
This property of an expression is called its value category.
[Note 1:
The discussion of each built-in operator in [expr.compound] indicates the category of the value it yields and the value categories of the operands it expects.
For example, the built-in assignment operators expect that the left operand is an lvalue and that the right operand is a prvalue and yield an lvalue as the result.
User-defined operators are functions, and the categories of values they expect and yield are determined by their parameter and return types.
— end note]
[Note 2:
Historically, lvalues and rvalues were so-called because they could appear on the left- and right-hand side of an assignment (although this is no longer generally true); glvalues are “generalized” lvalues, prvalues are “pure” rvalues, and xvalues are “eXpiring” lvalues.
Despite their names, these terms classify expressions, not values.
— end note]
[Note 3:
An expression is an xvalue if it is:
In general, the effect of this rule is that named rvalue references are treated as lvalues and unnamed rvalue references to objects are treated as xvalues; rvalue references to functions are treated as lvalues whether named or not.
— end note]
[Example 1: struct A { int m; }; A&& operator+(A, A); A&& f(); A a; A&& ar = static_cast<A&&>(a);
The expressions f(), f().m, static_­cast<A&&>(a), and a + a are xvalues.
The expression ar is an lvalue.
— end example]
The result of a glvalue is the entity denoted by the expression.
The result of a prvalue is the value that the expression stores into its context; a prvalue that has type cv void has no result.
A prvalue whose result is the value V is sometimes said to have or name the value V.
The result object of a prvalue is the object initialized by the prvalue; a non-discarded prvalue that is used to compute the value of an operand of a built-in operator or a prvalue that has type cv void has no result object.
[Note 4:
Except when the prvalue is the operand of a decltype-specifier, a prvalue of class or array type always has a result object.
For a discarded prvalue that has type other than cv void, a temporary object is materialized; see [expr.context].
— end note]
Whenever a glvalue appears as an operand of an operator that expects a prvalue for that operand, the lvalue-to-rvalue, array-to-pointer, or function-to-pointer standard conversions are applied to convert the expression to a prvalue.
[Note 5:
An attempt to bind an rvalue reference to an lvalue is not such a context; see [dcl.init.ref].
— end note]
[Note 6:
Because cv-qualifiers are removed from the type of an expression of non-class type when the expression is converted to a prvalue, an lvalue of type const int can, for example, be used where a prvalue of type int is required.
— end note]
[Note 7:
There are no prvalue bit-fields; if a bit-field is converted to a prvalue ([conv.lval]), a prvalue of the type of the bit-field is created, which might then be promoted ([conv.prom]).
— end note]
Whenever a prvalue appears as an operand of an operator that expects a glvalue for that operand, the temporary materialization conversion is applied to convert the expression to an xvalue.
The discussion of reference initialization in [dcl.init.ref] and of temporaries in [class.temporary] indicates the behavior of lvalues and rvalues in other significant contexts.
Unless otherwise indicated ([dcl.type.decltype]), a prvalue shall always have complete type or the void type; if it has a class type or (possibly multi-dimensional) array of class type, that class shall not be an abstract class ([class.abstract]).
A glvalue shall not have type cv void.
[Note 8:
A glvalue can have complete or incomplete non-void type.
Class and array prvalues can have cv-qualified types; other prvalues always have cv-unqualified types.
— end note]
An lvalue is modifiable unless its type is const-qualified or is a function type.
[Note 9:
A program that attempts to modify an object through a nonmodifiable lvalue or through an rvalue is ill-formed ([expr.ass], [expr.post.incr], [expr.pre.incr]).
— end note]
If a program attempts to access the stored value of an object through a glvalue whose type is not similar to one of the following types the behavior is undefined:47
  • the dynamic type of the object,
  • a type that is the signed or unsigned type corresponding to the dynamic type of the object, or
  • a char, unsigned char, or std​::​byte type.
If a program invokes a defaulted copy/move constructor or copy/move assignment operator for a union of type U with a glvalue argument that does not denote an object of type cv U within its lifetime, the behavior is undefined.
[Note 10:
Unlike in C, C++ has no accesses of class type.
— end note]
47)47)
The intent of this list is to specify those circumstances in which an object can or cannot be aliased.

7.2.2 Type [expr.type]

If an expression initially has the type “reference to T” ([dcl.ref], [dcl.init.ref]), the type is adjusted to T prior to any further analysis.
The expression designates the object or function denoted by the reference, and the expression is an lvalue or an xvalue, depending on the expression.
[Note 1:
Before the lifetime of the reference has started or after it has ended, the behavior is undefined (see [basic.life]).
— end note]
If a prvalue initially has the type “cv T”, where T is a cv-unqualified non-class, non-array type, the type of the expression is adjusted to T prior to any further analysis.
The composite pointer type of two operands p1 and p2 having types T1 and T2, respectively, where at least one is a pointer or pointer-to-member type or std​::​nullptr_­t, is:
  • if both p1 and p2 are null pointer constants, std​::​nullptr_­t;
  • if either p1 or p2 is a null pointer constant, T2 or T1, respectively;
  • if T1 or T2 is “pointer to cv1 void” and the other type is “pointer to cv2 T”, where T is an object type or void, “pointer to cv12 void”, where cv12 is the union of cv1 and cv2;
  • if T1 or T2 is “pointer to noexcept function” and the other type is “pointer to function”, where the function types are otherwise the same, “pointer to function”;
  • if T1 is “pointer to cv1 C1” and T2 is “pointer to cv2 C2”, where C1 is reference-related to C2 or C2 is reference-related to C1 ([dcl.init.ref]), the qualification-combined type ([conv.qual]) of T1 and T2 or the qualification-combined type of T2 and T1, respectively;
  • if T1 or T2 is “pointer to member of C1 of type function”, the other type is “pointer to member of C2 of type noexcept function”, and C1 is reference-related to C2 or C2 is reference-related to C1 ([dcl.init.ref]), where the function types are otherwise the same, “pointer to member of C2 of type function” or “pointer to member of C1 of type function”, respectively;
  • if T1 is “pointer to member of C1 of type cv1 U” and T2 is “pointer to member of C2 of type cv2 U”, for some non-function type U, where C1 is reference-related to C2 or C2 is reference-related to C1 ([dcl.init.ref]), the qualification-combined type of T2 and T1 or the qualification-combined type of T1 and T2, respectively;
  • if T1 and T2 are similar types ([conv.qual]), the qualification-combined type of T1 and T2;
  • otherwise, a program that necessitates the determination of a composite pointer type is ill-formed.
[Example 1: typedef void *p; typedef const int *q; typedef int **pi; typedef const int **pci;
The composite pointer type of p and q is “pointer to const void”; the composite pointer type of pi and pci is “pointer to const pointer to const int.
— end example]

7.2.3 Context dependence [expr.context]

An unevaluated operand is not evaluated.
[Note 1:
In an unevaluated operand, a non-static class member can be named ([expr.prim.id]) and naming of objects or functions does not, by itself, require that a definition be provided ([basic.def.odr]).
An unevaluated operand is considered a full-expression.
— end note]
In some contexts, an expression only appears for its side effects.
Such an expression is called a discarded-value expression.
The array-to-pointer and function-to-pointer standard conversions are not applied.
The lvalue-to-rvalue conversion is applied if and only if the expression is a glvalue of volatile-qualified type and it is one of the following:
[Note 2:
Using an overloaded operator causes a function call; the above covers only operators with built-in meaning.
— end note]
If the (possibly converted) expression is a prvalue, the temporary materialization conversion is applied.
[Note 3:
If the expression is an lvalue of class type, it must have a volatile copy constructor to initialize the temporary object that is the result object of the lvalue-to-rvalue conversion.
— end note]
The glvalue expression is evaluated and its value is discarded.