31 Input/output library [input.output]

31.1 General [input.output.general]

This Clause describes components that C++ programs may use to perform input/output operations.
The following subclauses describe requirements for stream parameters, and components for forward declarations of iostreams, predefined iostreams objects, base iostreams classes, stream buffering, stream formatting and manipulators, string streams, and file streams, as summarized in Table 120.
Table 120: Input/output library summary [tab:iostreams.summary]
Forward declarations
Standard iostream objects
Iostreams base classes
Stream buffers
Formatting and manipulators
<istream>, <ostream>, <iomanip>, <print>
String streams
Span-based streams
File streams
Synchronized output streams
File systems
C library files
<cstdio>, <cinttypes>