31 Input/output library [input.output]

31.7 Formatting and manipulators [iostream.format]

31.7.5 Input streams [input.streams]

31.7.5.3 Formatted input functions [istream.formatted]

31.7.5.3.1 Common requirements [istream.formatted.reqmts]

Each formatted input function begins execution by constructing an object of type ios_­base​::​iostate, termed the local error state, and initializing it to ios_­base​::​goodbit.
It then creates an object of class sentry with the noskipws (second) argument false.
If the sentry object returns true, when converted to a value of type bool, the function endeavors to obtain the requested input.
Otherwise, if the sentry constructor exits by throwing an exception or if the sentry object produces false when converted to a value of type bool, the function returns without attempting to obtain any input.
If rdbuf()->sbumpc() or rdbuf()->sgetc() returns traits​::​eof(), then ios_­base​::​eofbit is set in the local error state and the input function stops trying to obtain the requested input.
If an exception is thrown during input then ios_­base​::​badbit is set in the local error state, *this's error state is set to the local error state, and the exception is rethrown if (exceptions() & badbit) != 0.
After extraction is done, the input function calls setstate, which sets *this's error state to the local error state, and may throw an exception.
In any case, the formatted input function destroys the sentry object.
If no exception has been thrown, it returns *this.

31.7.5.3.2 Arithmetic extractors [istream.formatted.arithmetic]

basic_istream& operator>>(unsigned short& val); basic_istream& operator>>(unsigned int& val); basic_istream& operator>>(long& val); basic_istream& operator>>(unsigned long& val); basic_istream& operator>>(long long& val); basic_istream& operator>>(unsigned long long& val); basic_istream& operator>>(float& val); basic_istream& operator>>(double& val); basic_istream& operator>>(long double& val); basic_istream& operator>>(bool& val); basic_istream& operator>>(void*& val);
As in the case of the inserters, these extractors depend on the locale's num_­get<> object to perform parsing the input stream data.
These extractors behave as formatted input functions (as described in [istream.formatted.reqmts]).
After a sentry object is constructed, the conversion occurs as if performed by the following code fragment, where state represents the input function's local error state: using numget = num_get<charT, istreambuf_iterator<charT, traits>>; use_facet<numget>(loc).get(*this, 0, *this, state, val);
In the above fragment, loc stands for the private member of the basic_­ios class.
[Note 1:
The first argument provides an object of the istreambuf_­iterator class which is an iterator pointed to an input stream.
It bypasses istreams and uses streambufs directly.
— end note]
Class locale relies on this type as its interface to istream, so that it does not need to depend directly on istream.
basic_istream& operator>>(short& val);
The conversion occurs as if performed by the following code fragment (using the same notation as for the preceding code fragment): using numget = num_get<charT, istreambuf_iterator<charT, traits>>; long lval; use_facet<numget>(loc).get(*this, 0, *this, state, lval); if (lval < numeric_limits<short>::min()) { state |= ios_base::failbit; val = numeric_limits<short>::min(); } else if (numeric_limits<short>::max() < lval) { state |= ios_base::failbit; val = numeric_limits<short>::max(); } else val = static_cast<short>(lval);
basic_istream& operator>>(int& val);
The conversion occurs as if performed by the following code fragment (using the same notation as for the preceding code fragment): using numget = num_get<charT, istreambuf_iterator<charT, traits>>; long lval; use_facet<numget>(loc).get(*this, 0, *this, state, lval); if (lval < numeric_limits<int>::min()) { state |= ios_base::failbit; val = numeric_limits<int>::min(); } else if (numeric_limits<int>::max() < lval) { state |= ios_base::failbit; val = numeric_limits<int>::max(); } else val = static_cast<int>(lval);
basic_istream& operator>>(extended-floating-point-type& val);
If the floating-point conversion rank of extended-floating-point-type is not less than or equal to that of long double, then an invocation of the operator function is conditionally supported with implementation-defined semantics.
Otherwise, let FP be a standard floating-point type:
  • if the floating-point conversion rank of extended-floating-point-type is less than or equal to that of float, then FP is float,
  • otherwise, if the floating-point conversion rank of extended-floating-point-type is less than or equal to that of double, then FP is double,
  • otherwise, FP is long double.
The conversion occurs as if performed by the following code fragment (using the same notation as for the preceding code fragment): using numget = num_get<charT, istreambuf_iterator<charT, traits>>; FP fval; use_facet<numget>(loc).get(*this, 0, *this, state, fval); if (fval < -numeric_limits<extended-floating-point-type>::max()) { state |= ios_base::failbit; val = -numeric_limits<extended-floating-point-type>::max(); } else if (numeric_limits<extended-floating-point-type>::max() < fval) { state |= ios_base::failbit; val = numeric_limits<extended-floating-point-type>::max(); } else { val = static_cast<extended-floating-point-type>(fval); }
[Note 2:
When the extended floating-point type has a floating-point conversion rank that is not equal to the rank of any standard floating-point type, then double rounding during the conversion can result in inaccurate results.
from_­chars can be used in situations where maximum accuracy is important.
— end note]

31.7.5.3.3 basic_­istream​::​operator>> [istream.extractors]

basic_istream& operator>>(basic_istream& (*pf)(basic_istream&));
Effects: None.
This extractor does not behave as a formatted input function (as described in [istream.formatted.reqmts]).
Returns: pf(*this).
289
basic_istream& operator>>(basic_ios<charT, traits>& (*pf)(basic_ios<charT, traits>&));
Effects: Calls pf(*this).
This extractor does not behave as a formatted input function (as described in [istream.formatted.reqmts]).
Returns: *this.
basic_istream& operator>>(ios_base& (*pf)(ios_base&));
Effects: Calls pf(*this).290
This extractor does not behave as a formatted input function (as described in [istream.formatted.reqmts]).
Returns: *this.
template<class charT, class traits, size_t N> basic_istream<charT, traits>& operator>>(basic_istream<charT, traits>& in, charT (&s)[N]); template<class traits, size_t N> basic_istream<char, traits>& operator>>(basic_istream<char, traits>& in, unsigned char (&s)[N]); template<class traits, size_t N> basic_istream<char, traits>& operator>>(basic_istream<char, traits>& in, signed char (&s)[N]);
Effects: Behaves like a formatted input member (as described in [istream.formatted.reqmts]) of in.
After a sentry object is constructed, operator>> extracts characters and stores them into s.
If width() is greater than zero, n is min(size_­t(width()), N).
Otherwise n is N.
n is the maximum number of characters stored.
Characters are extracted and stored until any of the following occurs:
  • n-1 characters are stored;
  • end of file occurs on the input sequence;
  • letting ct be use_­facet<ctype<charT>>(in.getloc()), ct.is(ct.space, c) is true.
operator>> then stores a null byte (charT()) in the next position, which may be the first position if no characters were extracted.
operator>> then calls width(0).
If the function extracted no characters, ios_­base​::​failbit is set in the input function's local error state before setstate is called.
Returns: in.
template<class charT, class traits> basic_istream<charT, traits>& operator>>(basic_istream<charT, traits>& in, charT& c); template<class traits> basic_istream<char, traits>& operator>>(basic_istream<char, traits>& in, unsigned char& c); template<class traits> basic_istream<char, traits>& operator>>(basic_istream<char, traits>& in, signed char& c);
Effects: Behaves like a formatted input member (as described in [istream.formatted.reqmts]) of in.
A character is extracted from in, if one is available, and stored in c.
Otherwise, ios_­base​::​failbit is set in the input function's local error state before setstate is called.
Returns: in.
basic_istream& operator>>(basic_streambuf<charT, traits>* sb);
Effects: Behaves as an unformatted input function.
If sb is null, calls setstate(failbit), which may throw ios_­base​::​failure ([iostate.flags]).
After a sentry object is constructed, extracts characters from *this and inserts them in the output sequence controlled by sb.
Characters are extracted and inserted until any of the following occurs:
  • end-of-file occurs on the input sequence;
  • inserting in the output sequence fails (in which case the character to be inserted is not extracted);
  • an exception occurs (in which case the exception is caught).
If the function inserts no characters, ios_­base​::​failbit is set in the input function's local error state before setstate is called.
Returns: *this.
289)289)
See, for example, the function signature ws(basic_­istream&) ([istream.manip]).
290)290)
See, for example, the function signature dec(ios_­base&) ([basefield.manip]).