29 Input/output library [input.output]

29.7 Formatting and manipulators [iostream.format]

29.7.5 Output streams [output.streams]

29.7.5.2 Class template basic_­ostream [ostream]

29.7.5.2.1 General [ostream.general]

namespace std { template<class charT, class traits = char_traits<charT>> class basic_ostream : virtual public basic_ios<charT, traits> { public: // types (inherited from basic_­ios) using char_type = charT; using int_type = typename traits::int_type; using pos_type = typename traits::pos_type; using off_type = typename traits::off_type; using traits_type = traits; // [ostream.cons], constructor/destructor explicit basic_ostream(basic_streambuf<char_type, traits>* sb); virtual ~basic_ostream(); // [ostream.sentry], prefix/suffix class sentry; // [ostream.formatted], formatted output basic_ostream& operator<<(basic_ostream& (*pf)(basic_ostream&)); basic_ostream& operator<<(basic_ios<charT, traits>& (*pf)(basic_ios<charT, traits>&)); basic_ostream& operator<<(ios_base& (*pf)(ios_base&)); basic_ostream& operator<<(bool n); basic_ostream& operator<<(short n); basic_ostream& operator<<(unsigned short n); basic_ostream& operator<<(int n); basic_ostream& operator<<(unsigned int n); basic_ostream& operator<<(long n); basic_ostream& operator<<(unsigned long n); basic_ostream& operator<<(long long n); basic_ostream& operator<<(unsigned long long n); basic_ostream& operator<<(float f); basic_ostream& operator<<(double f); basic_ostream& operator<<(long double f); basic_ostream& operator<<(const void* p); basic_ostream& operator<<(nullptr_t); basic_ostream& operator<<(basic_streambuf<char_type, traits>* sb); // [ostream.unformatted], unformatted output basic_ostream& put(char_type c); basic_ostream& write(const char_type* s, streamsize n); basic_ostream& flush(); // [ostream.seeks], seeks pos_type tellp(); basic_ostream& seekp(pos_type); basic_ostream& seekp(off_type, ios_base::seekdir); protected: // [ostream.cons], copy/move constructor basic_ostream(const basic_ostream&) = delete; basic_ostream(basic_ostream&& rhs); // [ostream.assign], assign and swap basic_ostream& operator=(const basic_ostream&) = delete; basic_ostream& operator=(basic_ostream&& rhs); void swap(basic_ostream& rhs); }; // [ostream.inserters.character], character inserters template<class charT, class traits> basic_ostream<charT, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<charT, traits>&, charT); template<class charT, class traits> basic_ostream<charT, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<charT, traits>&, char); template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, char); template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, signed char); template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, unsigned char); template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, wchar_t) = delete; template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, char8_t) = delete; template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, char16_t) = delete; template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, char32_t) = delete; template<class traits> basic_ostream<wchar_t, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<wchar_t, traits>&, char8_t) = delete; template<class traits> basic_ostream<wchar_t, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<wchar_t, traits>&, char16_t) = delete; template<class traits> basic_ostream<wchar_t, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<wchar_t, traits>&, char32_t) = delete; template<class charT, class traits> basic_ostream<charT, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<charT, traits>&, const charT*); template<class charT, class traits> basic_ostream<charT, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<charT, traits>&, const char*); template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, const char*); template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, const signed char*); template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, const unsigned char*); template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, const wchar_t*) = delete; template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, const char8_t*) = delete; template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, const char16_t*) = delete; template<class traits> basic_ostream<char, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<char, traits>&, const char32_t*) = delete; template<class traits> basic_ostream<wchar_t, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<wchar_t, traits>&, const char8_t*) = delete; template<class traits> basic_ostream<wchar_t, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<wchar_t, traits>&, const char16_t*) = delete; template<class traits> basic_ostream<wchar_t, traits>& operator<<(basic_ostream<wchar_t, traits>&, const char32_t*) = delete; }
The class template basic_­ostream defines a number of member function signatures that assist in formatting and writing output to output sequences controlled by a stream buffer.
Two groups of member function signatures share common properties: the formatted output functions (or inserters) and the unformatted output functions. Both groups of output functions generate (or insert) output characters by actions equivalent to calling rdbuf()->sputc(int_­type).
They may use other public members of basic_­ostream except that they shall not invoke any virtual members of rdbuf() except overflow(), xsputn(), and sync().
If one of these called functions throws an exception, then unless explicitly noted otherwise the output function sets badbit in the error state.
If badbit is set in exceptions(), the output function rethrows the exception without completing its actions, otherwise it does not throw anything and proceeds as if the called function had returned a failure indication.
[Note 1:
The deleted overloads of operator<< prevent formatting characters as integers and strings as pointers.
— end note]