33 Concurrency support library [thread]

33.6 Mutual exclusion [thread.mutex]

33.6.7 Call once [thread.once]

33.6.7.1 Struct once_­flag [thread.once.onceflag]

namespace std { struct once_flag { constexpr once_flag() noexcept; once_flag(const once_flag&) = delete; once_flag& operator=(const once_flag&) = delete; }; }
The class once_­flag is an opaque data structure that call_­once uses to initialize data without causing a data race or deadlock.
constexpr once_flag() noexcept;
Synchronization: The construction of a once_­flag object is not synchronized.
Postconditions: The object's internal state is set to indicate to an invocation of call_­once with the object as its initial argument that no function has been called.

33.6.7.2 Function call_­once [thread.once.callonce]

template<class Callable, class... Args> void call_once(once_flag& flag, Callable&& func, Args&&... args);
Mandates: is_­invocable_­v<Callable, Args...> is true.
Effects: An execution of call_­once that does not call its func is a passive execution.
An execution of call_­once that calls its func is an active execution.
An active execution calls INVOKE(​std​::​forward<Callable>(func), std​::​forward<Args>(args)...).
If such a call to func throws an exception the execution is exceptional, otherwise it is returning.
An exceptional execution propagates the exception to the caller of call_­once.
Among all executions of call_­once for any given once_­flag: at most one is a returning execution; if there is a returning execution, it is the last active execution; and there are passive executions only if there is a returning execution.
[Note 1:
Passive executions allow other threads to reliably observe the results produced by the earlier returning execution.
— end note]
Synchronization: For any given once_­flag: all active executions occur in a total order; completion of an active execution synchronizes with the start of the next one in this total order; and the returning execution synchronizes with the return from all passive executions.
Throws: system_­error when an exception is required ([thread.req.exception]), or any exception thrown by func.
[Example 1: // global flag, regular function void init(); std::once_flag flag; void f() { std::call_once(flag, init); } // function static flag, function object struct initializer { void operator()(); }; void g() { static std::once_flag flag2; std::call_once(flag2, initializer()); } // object flag, member function class information { std::once_flag verified; void verifier(); public: void verify() { std::call_once(verified, &information::verifier, *this); } }; — end example]