22 Containers library [containers]

22.5 Unordered associative containers [unord]

22.5.6 Class template unordered_­set [unord.set]

22.5.6.1 Overview [unord.set.overview]

An unordered_­set is an unordered associative container that supports unique keys (an unordered_­set contains at most one of each key value) and in which the elements' keys are the elements themselves.
The unordered_­set class supports forward iterators.
An unordered_­set meets all of the requirements of a container, of an unordered associative container, and of an allocator-aware container (Table 76).
It provides the operations described in the preceding requirements table for unique keys; that is, an unordered_­set supports the a_­uniq operations in that table, not the a_­eq operations.
For an unordered_­set<Key> the key type and the value type are both Key.
The iterator and const_­iterator types are both constant iterator types.
It is unspecified whether they are the same type.
Subclause [unord.set] only describes operations on unordered_­set that are not described in one of the requirement tables, or for which there is additional semantic information.
namespace std { template<class Key, class Hash = hash<Key>, class Pred = equal_to<Key>, class Allocator = allocator<Key>> class unordered_set { public: // types using key_type = Key; using value_type = Key; using hasher = Hash; using key_equal = Pred; using allocator_type = Allocator; using pointer = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::pointer; using const_pointer = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::const_pointer; using reference = value_type&; using const_reference = const value_type&; using size_type = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements] using difference_type = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements] using iterator = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements] using const_iterator = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements] using local_iterator = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements] using const_local_iterator = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements] using node_type = unspecified; using insert_return_type = insert-return-type<iterator, node_type>; // [unord.set.cnstr], construct/copy/destroy unordered_set(); explicit unordered_set(size_type n, const hasher& hf = hasher(), const key_equal& eql = key_equal(), const allocator_type& a = allocator_type()); template<class InputIterator> unordered_set(InputIterator f, InputIterator l, size_type n = see below, const hasher& hf = hasher(), const key_equal& eql = key_equal(), const allocator_type& a = allocator_type()); unordered_set(const unordered_set&); unordered_set(unordered_set&&); explicit unordered_set(const Allocator&); unordered_set(const unordered_set&, const type_identity_t<Allocator>&); unordered_set(unordered_set&&, const type_identity_t<Allocator>&); unordered_set(initializer_list<value_type> il, size_type n = see below, const hasher& hf = hasher(), const key_equal& eql = key_equal(), const allocator_type& a = allocator_type()); unordered_set(size_type n, const allocator_type& a) : unordered_set(n, hasher(), key_equal(), a) { } unordered_set(size_type n, const hasher& hf, const allocator_type& a) : unordered_set(n, hf, key_equal(), a) { } template<class InputIterator> unordered_set(InputIterator f, InputIterator l, size_type n, const allocator_type& a) : unordered_set(f, l, n, hasher(), key_equal(), a) { } template<class InputIterator> unordered_set(InputIterator f, InputIterator l, size_type n, const hasher& hf, const allocator_type& a) : unordered_set(f, l, n, hf, key_equal(), a) { } unordered_set(initializer_list<value_type> il, size_type n, const allocator_type& a) : unordered_set(il, n, hasher(), key_equal(), a) { } unordered_set(initializer_list<value_type> il, size_type n, const hasher& hf, const allocator_type& a) : unordered_set(il, n, hf, key_equal(), a) { } ~unordered_set(); unordered_set& operator=(const unordered_set&); unordered_set& operator=(unordered_set&&) noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::is_always_equal::value && is_nothrow_move_assignable_v<Hash> && is_nothrow_move_assignable_v<Pred>); unordered_set& operator=(initializer_list<value_type>); allocator_type get_allocator() const noexcept; // iterators iterator begin() noexcept; const_iterator begin() const noexcept; iterator end() noexcept; const_iterator end() const noexcept; const_iterator cbegin() const noexcept; const_iterator cend() const noexcept; // capacity [[nodiscard]] bool empty() const noexcept; size_type size() const noexcept; size_type max_size() const noexcept; // modifiers template<class... Args> pair<iterator, bool> emplace(Args&&... args); template<class... Args> iterator emplace_hint(const_iterator position, Args&&... args); pair<iterator, bool> insert(const value_type& obj); pair<iterator, bool> insert(value_type&& obj); iterator insert(const_iterator hint, const value_type& obj); iterator insert(const_iterator hint, value_type&& obj); template<class InputIterator> void insert(InputIterator first, InputIterator last); void insert(initializer_list<value_type>); node_type extract(const_iterator position); node_type extract(const key_type& x); insert_return_type insert(node_type&& nh); iterator insert(const_iterator hint, node_type&& nh); iterator erase(iterator position); iterator erase(const_iterator position); size_type erase(const key_type& k); iterator erase(const_iterator first, const_iterator last); void swap(unordered_set&) noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::is_always_equal::value && is_nothrow_swappable_v<Hash> && is_nothrow_swappable_v<Pred>); void clear() noexcept; template<class H2, class P2> void merge(unordered_set<Key, H2, P2, Allocator>& source); template<class H2, class P2> void merge(unordered_set<Key, H2, P2, Allocator>&& source); template<class H2, class P2> void merge(unordered_multiset<Key, H2, P2, Allocator>& source); template<class H2, class P2> void merge(unordered_multiset<Key, H2, P2, Allocator>&& source); // observers hasher hash_function() const; key_equal key_eq() const; // set operations iterator find(const key_type& k); const_iterator find(const key_type& k) const; template<class K> iterator find(const K& k); template<class K> const_iterator find(const K& k) const; size_type count(const key_type& k) const; template<class K> size_type count(const K& k) const; bool contains(const key_type& k) const; template<class K> bool contains(const K& k) const; pair<iterator, iterator> equal_range(const key_type& k); pair<const_iterator, const_iterator> equal_range(const key_type& k) const; template<class K> pair<iterator, iterator> equal_range(const K& k); template<class K> pair<const_iterator, const_iterator> equal_range(const K& k) const; // bucket interface size_type bucket_count() const noexcept; size_type max_bucket_count() const noexcept; size_type bucket_size(size_type n) const; size_type bucket(const key_type& k) const; local_iterator begin(size_type n); const_local_iterator begin(size_type n) const; local_iterator end(size_type n); const_local_iterator end(size_type n) const; const_local_iterator cbegin(size_type n) const; const_local_iterator cend(size_type n) const; // hash policy float load_factor() const noexcept; float max_load_factor() const noexcept; void max_load_factor(float z); void rehash(size_type n); void reserve(size_type n); }; template<class InputIterator, class Hash = hash<iter-value-type<InputIterator>>, class Pred = equal_to<iter-value-type<InputIterator>>, class Allocator = allocator<iter-value-type<InputIterator>>> unordered_set(InputIterator, InputIterator, typename see below::size_type = see below, Hash = Hash(), Pred = Pred(), Allocator = Allocator()) -> unordered_set<iter-value-type<InputIterator>, Hash, Pred, Allocator>; template<class T, class Hash = hash<T>, class Pred = equal_to<T>, class Allocator = allocator<T>> unordered_set(initializer_list<T>, typename see below::size_type = see below, Hash = Hash(), Pred = Pred(), Allocator = Allocator()) -> unordered_set<T, Hash, Pred, Allocator>; template<class InputIterator, class Allocator> unordered_set(InputIterator, InputIterator, typename see below::size_type, Allocator) -> unordered_set<iter-value-type<InputIterator>, hash<iter-value-type<InputIterator>>, equal_to<iter-value-type<InputIterator>>, Allocator>; template<class InputIterator, class Hash, class Allocator> unordered_set(InputIterator, InputIterator, typename see below::size_type, Hash, Allocator) -> unordered_set<iter-value-type<InputIterator>, Hash, equal_to<iter-value-type<InputIterator>>, Allocator>; template<class T, class Allocator> unordered_set(initializer_list<T>, typename see below::size_type, Allocator) -> unordered_set<T, hash<T>, equal_to<T>, Allocator>; template<class T, class Hash, class Allocator> unordered_set(initializer_list<T>, typename see below::size_type, Hash, Allocator) -> unordered_set<T, Hash, equal_to<T>, Allocator>; }
A size_­type parameter type in an unordered_­set deduction guide refers to the size_­type member type of the type deduced by the deduction guide.

22.5.6.2 Constructors [unord.set.cnstr]

unordered_set() : unordered_set(size_type(see below)) { } explicit unordered_set(size_type n, const hasher& hf = hasher(), const key_equal& eql = key_equal(), const allocator_type& a = allocator_type());
Effects: Constructs an empty unordered_­set using the specified hash function, key equality predicate, and allocator, and using at least n buckets.
For the default constructor, the number of buckets is implementation-defined.
max_­load_­factor() returns 1.0.
Complexity: Constant.
template<class InputIterator> unordered_set(InputIterator f, InputIterator l, size_type n = see below, const hasher& hf = hasher(), const key_equal& eql = key_equal(), const allocator_type& a = allocator_type()); unordered_set(initializer_list<value_type> il, size_type n = see below, const hasher& hf = hasher(), const key_equal& eql = key_equal(), const allocator_type& a = allocator_type());
Effects: Constructs an empty unordered_­set using the specified hash function, key equality predicate, and allocator, and using at least n buckets.
If n is not provided, the number of buckets is implementation-defined.
Then inserts elements from the range [f, l) for the first form, or from the range [il.begin(), il.end()) for the second form.
max_­load_­factor() returns 1.0.
Complexity: Average case linear, worst case quadratic.

22.5.6.3 Erasure [unord.set.erasure]

template<class K, class H, class P, class A, class Predicate> typename unordered_set<K, H, P, A>::size_type erase_if(unordered_set<K, H, P, A>& c, Predicate pred);
Effects: Equivalent to: auto original_size = c.size(); for (auto i = c.begin(), last = c.end(); i != last; ) { if (pred(*i)) { i = c.erase(i); } else { ++i; } } return original_size - c.size();