namespace std { enum class memory_order : unspecified { relaxed, consume, acquire, release, acq_rel, seq_cst }; inline constexpr memory_order memory_order_relaxed = memory_order::relaxed; inline constexpr memory_order memory_order_consume = memory_order::consume; inline constexpr memory_order memory_order_acquire = memory_order::acquire; inline constexpr memory_order memory_order_release = memory_order::release; inline constexpr memory_order memory_order_acq_rel = memory_order::acq_rel; inline constexpr memory_order memory_order_seq_cst = memory_order::seq_cst; }

The enumeration memory_order specifies the detailed regular
(non-atomic) memory synchronization order as defined in
[intro.multithread] and may provide for operation ordering.

Its
enumerated values and their meanings are as follows:

- memory_order::relaxed: no operation orders memory.
- memory_order::release, memory_order::acq_rel, and memory_order::seq_cst: a store operation performs a release operation on the affected memory location.
- memory_order::consume: a load operation performs a consume operation on the
affected memory location. [Note: Prefer memory_order::acquire, which provides stronger guarantees than memory_order::consume. Implementations have found it infeasible to provide performance better than that of memory_order::acquire. Specification revisions are under consideration. —]
*end note* - memory_order::acquire, memory_order::acq_rel, and memory_order::seq_cst: a load operation performs an acquire operation on the affected memory location.

An atomic operation A that performs a release operation on an atomic
object M synchronizes with an atomic operation B that performs
an acquire operation on M and takes its value from any side effect in the
release sequence headed by A.

An atomic operation A on some atomic object M is
*coherence-ordered before*
another atomic operation B on M if

- A is a modification, and B reads the value stored by A, or
- A precedes B in the modification order of M, or
- A and B are not the same atomic read-modify-write operation, and there exists an atomic modification X of M such that A reads the value stored by X and X precedes B in the modification order of M, or
- there exists an atomic modification X of M such that A is coherence-ordered before X and X is coherence-ordered before B.

There is a single total order S
on all memory_order::seq_cst operations, including fences,
that satisfies the following constraints.

First, if A and B are
memory_order::seq_cst operations and
A strongly happens before B,
then A precedes B in S.

Second, for every pair of atomic operations A and
B on an object M,
where A is coherence-ordered before B,
the following four conditions are required to be satisfied by S:

- if A and B are both memory_order::seq_cst operations, then A precedes B in S; and
- if A is a memory_order::seq_cst operation and B happens before a memory_order::seq_cst fence Y, then A precedes Y in S; and
- if a memory_order::seq_cst fence X happens before A and B is a memory_order::seq_cst operation, then X precedes B in S; and
- if a memory_order::seq_cst fence X happens before A and B happens before a memory_order::seq_cst fence Y, then X precedes Y in S.

[Note

: *end note*

]memory_order::seq_cst ensures sequential consistency only
for a program that is free of data races and
uses exclusively memory_order::seq_cst atomic operations.

Any use of weaker ordering will invalidate this guarantee
unless extreme care is used.

In many cases, memory_order::seq_cst atomic operations are reorderable
with respect to other atomic operations performed by the same thread.

— Implementations should ensure that no “out-of-thin-air” values are computed that
circularly depend on their own computation.

[Note

: *end note*

]For example, with x and y initially zero,

// Thread 1: r1 = y.load(memory_order::relaxed); x.store(r1, memory_order::relaxed);

// Thread 2: r2 = x.load(memory_order::relaxed); y.store(r2, memory_order::relaxed);should not produce r1 == r2 == 42, since the store of 42 to y is only possible if the store to x stores 42, which circularly depends on the store to y storing 42.

Note that without this restriction, such an
execution is possible.

— [Note

: *end note*

]The recommendation similarly disallows r1 == r2 == 42 in the
following example, with x and y again initially zero:

// Thread 1: r1 = x.load(memory_order::relaxed); if (r1 == 42) y.store(42, memory_order::relaxed);

// Thread 2: r2 = y.load(memory_order::relaxed); if (r2 == 42) x.store(42, memory_order::relaxed);—

Atomic read-modify-write operations shall always read the last value
(in the modification order) written before the write associated with
the read-modify-write operation.

Implementations should make atomic stores visible to atomic loads within a reasonable
amount of time.

```
template<class T>
T kill_dependency(T y) noexcept;
```