This Clause describes components for fine-grained atomic access.

This access is
provided via operations on atomic objects.

namespace std { // [atomics.order], order and consistency enum memory_order; template <class T> T kill_dependency(T y) noexcept; // [atomics.lockfree], lock-free property #define ATOMIC_BOOL_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_CHAR_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_CHAR16_T_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_CHAR32_T_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_WCHAR_T_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_SHORT_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_INT_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_LONG_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_LLONG_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_POINTER_LOCK_FREE unspecified // [atomics.types.generic], atomic template<class T> struct atomic; // [atomics.types.pointer], partial specialization for pointers template<class T> struct atomic<T*>; // [atomics.nonmembers], non-member functions template<class T> bool atomic_is_lock_free(const volatile atomic<T>*) noexcept; template<class T> bool atomic_is_lock_free(const atomic<T>*) noexcept; template<class T> void atomic_init(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template<class T> void atomic_init(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template<class T> void atomic_store(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template<class T> void atomic_store(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template<class T> void atomic_store_explicit(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order) noexcept; template<class T> void atomic_store_explicit(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order) noexcept; template<class T> T atomic_load(const volatile atomic<T>*) noexcept; template<class T> T atomic_load(const atomic<T>*) noexcept; template<class T> T atomic_load_explicit(const volatile atomic<T>*, memory_order) noexcept; template<class T> T atomic_load_explicit(const atomic<T>*, memory_order) noexcept; template<class T> T atomic_exchange(volatile atomic<T>*, T) noexcept; template<class T> T atomic_exchange(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template<class T> T atomic_exchange_explicit(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order) noexcept; template<class T> T atomic_exchange_explicit(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order) noexcept; template<class T> bool atomic_compare_exchange_weak(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template<class T> bool atomic_compare_exchange_weak(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template<class T> bool atomic_compare_exchange_strong(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template<class T> bool atomic_compare_exchange_strong(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template<class T> bool atomic_compare_exchange_weak_explicit(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order, memory_order) noexcept; template<class T> bool atomic_compare_exchange_weak_explicit(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order, memory_order) noexcept; template<class T> bool atomic_compare_exchange_strong_explicit(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order, memory_order) noexcept; template<class T> bool atomic_compare_exchange_strong_explicit(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order, memory_order) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_add(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::difference_type) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_add(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::difference_type) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_add_explicit(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::difference_type, memory_order) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_add_explicit(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::difference_type, memory_order) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_sub(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::difference_type) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_sub(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::difference_type) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_sub_explicit(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::difference_type, memory_order) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_sub_explicit(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::difference_type, memory_order) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_and(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_and(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_and_explicit(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_and_explicit(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_or(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_or(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_or_explicit(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_or_explicit(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_xor(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_xor(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_xor_explicit(volatile atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order) noexcept; template <class T> T atomic_fetch_xor_explicit(atomic<T>*, typename atomic<T>::value_type, memory_order) noexcept; // [atomics.types.operations], initialization #define ATOMIC_VAR_INIT(value) see below // [atomics.alias], type aliases using atomic_bool = atomic<bool>; using atomic_char = atomic<char>; using atomic_schar = atomic<signed char>; using atomic_uchar = atomic<unsigned char>; using atomic_short = atomic<short>; using atomic_ushort = atomic<unsigned short>; using atomic_int = atomic<int>; using atomic_uint = atomic<unsigned int>; using atomic_long = atomic<long>; using atomic_ulong = atomic<unsigned long>; using atomic_llong = atomic<long long>; using atomic_ullong = atomic<unsigned long long>; using atomic_char16_t = atomic<char16_t>; using atomic_char32_t = atomic<char32_t>; using atomic_wchar_t = atomic<wchar_t>; using atomic_int8_t = atomic<int8_t>; using atomic_uint8_t = atomic<uint8_t>; using atomic_int16_t = atomic<int16_t>; using atomic_uint16_t = atomic<uint16_t>; using atomic_int32_t = atomic<int32_t>; using atomic_uint32_t = atomic<uint32_t>; using atomic_int64_t = atomic<int64_t>; using atomic_uint64_t = atomic<uint64_t>; using atomic_int_least8_t = atomic<int_least8_t>; using atomic_uint_least8_t = atomic<uint_least8_t>; using atomic_int_least16_t = atomic<int_least16_t>; using atomic_uint_least16_t = atomic<uint_least16_t>; using atomic_int_least32_t = atomic<int_least32_t>; using atomic_uint_least32_t = atomic<uint_least32_t>; using atomic_int_least64_t = atomic<int_least64_t>; using atomic_uint_least64_t = atomic<uint_least64_t>; using atomic_int_fast8_t = atomic<int_fast8_t>; using atomic_uint_fast8_t = atomic<uint_fast8_t>; using atomic_int_fast16_t = atomic<int_fast16_t>; using atomic_uint_fast16_t = atomic<uint_fast16_t>; using atomic_int_fast32_t = atomic<int_fast32_t>; using atomic_uint_fast32_t = atomic<uint_fast32_t>; using atomic_int_fast64_t = atomic<int_fast64_t>; using atomic_uint_fast64_t = atomic<uint_fast64_t>; using atomic_intptr_t = atomic<intptr_t>; using atomic_uintptr_t = atomic<uintptr_t>; using atomic_size_t = atomic<size_t>; using atomic_ptrdiff_t = atomic<ptrdiff_t>; using atomic_intmax_t = atomic<intmax_t>; using atomic_uintmax_t = atomic<uintmax_t>; // [atomics.flag], flag type and operations struct atomic_flag; bool atomic_flag_test_and_set(volatile atomic_flag*) noexcept; bool atomic_flag_test_and_set(atomic_flag*) noexcept; bool atomic_flag_test_and_set_explicit(volatile atomic_flag*, memory_order) noexcept; bool atomic_flag_test_and_set_explicit(atomic_flag*, memory_order) noexcept; void atomic_flag_clear(volatile atomic_flag*) noexcept; void atomic_flag_clear(atomic_flag*) noexcept; void atomic_flag_clear_explicit(volatile atomic_flag*, memory_order) noexcept; void atomic_flag_clear_explicit(atomic_flag*, memory_order) noexcept; #define ATOMIC_FLAG_INIT see below // [atomics.fences], fences extern "C" void atomic_thread_fence(memory_order) noexcept; extern "C" void atomic_signal_fence(memory_order) noexcept; }

namespace std { enum memory_order { memory_order_relaxed, memory_order_consume, memory_order_acquire, memory_order_release, memory_order_acq_rel, memory_order_seq_cst }; }

The enumeration memory_order specifies the detailed regular
(non-atomic) memory synchronization order as defined in
[intro.multithread] and may provide for operation ordering.

Its
enumerated values and their meanings are as follows:

- memory_order_relaxed: no operation orders memory.
- memory_order_release, memory_order_acq_rel, and memory_order_seq_cst: a store operation performs a release operation on the affected memory location.
- memory_order_consume: a load operation performs a consume operation on the affected memory location.
- memory_order_acquire, memory_order_acq_rel, and memory_order_seq_cst: a load operation performs an acquire operation on the affected memory location.

An atomic operation A that performs a release operation on an atomic
object M synchronizes with an atomic operation B that performs
an acquire operation on M and takes its value from any side effect in the
release sequence headed by A.

There shall be a single total order S on all memory_order_seq_cst
operations, consistent with the “happens before” order and modification orders for all
affected locations, such that each memory_order_seq_cst operation
B that loads a
value from an atomic object M
observes one of the following values:

- the result of the last modification A of M that precedes B in S, if it exists, or
- if A exists, the result of some modification of M that is not memory_order_seq_cst and that does not happen before A, or

For an atomic operation B that reads the value of an atomic object M,
if there is a memory_order_seq_cst fence X sequenced before B,
then B observes either the last memory_order_seq_cst modification of
M preceding X in the total order S or a later modification of
M in its modification order.

For atomic operations A and B on an atomic object M, where
A modifies M and B takes its value, if there is a
memory_order_seq_cst fence X such that A is sequenced before
X and B follows X in S, then B observes
either the effects of A or a later modification of M in its
modification order.

For atomic operations A and B on an atomic object M, where
A modifies M and B takes its value, if there are
memory_order_seq_cst fences X and Y such that A is
sequenced before X, Y is sequenced before B, and X
precedes Y in S, then B observes either the effects of
A or a later modification of M in its modification order.

For atomic modifications A and B of an atomic object M,
B occurs later than A in the modification order of M if:

- there is a memory_order_seq_cst fence X such that A is sequenced before X, and X precedes B in S, or
- there is a memory_order_seq_cst fence Y such that Y is sequenced before B, and A precedes Y in S, or
- there are memory_order_seq_cst fences X and Y such that A is sequenced before X, Y is sequenced before B, and X precedes Y in S.

[ Note

: *end note*

]memory_order_seq_cst ensures sequential consistency only for a
program that is free of data races and uses exclusively memory_order_seq_cst
operations.

Any use of weaker ordering will invalidate this guarantee unless extreme
care is used.

In particular, memory_order_seq_cst fences ensure a total order
only for the fences themselves.

Fences cannot, in general, be used to restore sequential
consistency for atomic operations with weaker ordering specifications.

— Implementations should ensure that no “out-of-thin-air” values are computed that
circularly depend on their own computation.

[ Note

: *end note*

]For example, with x and y initially zero,

```
// Thread 1:
r1 = y.load(memory_order_relaxed);
x.store(r1, memory_order_relaxed);
```

```
// Thread 2:
r2 = x.load(memory_order_relaxed);
y.store(r2, memory_order_relaxed);
```

should not produce r1 == r2 == 42, since the store of 42 to y is only
possible if the store to x stores 42, which circularly depends on the
store to y storing 42.

Note that without this restriction, such an
execution is possible.

— [ Note

: *end note*

]The recommendation similarly disallows r1 == r2 == 42 in the
following example, with x and y again initially zero:

```
// Thread 1:
r1 = x.load(memory_order_relaxed);
if (r1 == 42) y.store(42, memory_order_relaxed);
```

```
// Thread 2:
r2 = y.load(memory_order_relaxed);
if (r2 == 42) x.store(42, memory_order_relaxed);
```

— Atomic read-modify-write operations shall always read the last value
(in the modification order) written before the write associated with
the read-modify-write operation.

Implementations should make atomic stores visible to atomic loads within a reasonable
amount of time.

```
template <class T>
T kill_dependency(T y) noexcept;
```

#define ATOMIC_BOOL_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_CHAR_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_CHAR16_T_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_CHAR32_T_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_WCHAR_T_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_SHORT_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_INT_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_LONG_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_LLONG_LOCK_FREE unspecified #define ATOMIC_POINTER_LOCK_FREE unspecified

The ATOMIC_..._LOCK_FREE macros indicate the lock-free property of the
corresponding atomic types, with the signed and unsigned variants grouped
together.

The properties also apply to the corresponding (partial) specializations of the
atomic template.

A value of 0 indicates that the types are never
lock-free.

A value of 1 indicates that the types are sometimes lock-free.

A
value of 2 indicates that the types are always lock-free.

The function atomic_is_lock_free
indicates whether the object is lock-free.

In any given program execution, the
result of the lock-free query shall be consistent for all pointers of the same
type.

[ Note

: *end note*

]Operations that are lock-free should also be address-free.

That is,
atomic operations on the same memory location via two different addresses will
communicate atomically.

The implementation should not depend on any
per-process state.

This restriction enables communication by memory that is
mapped into a process more than once and by memory that is shared between two
processes.

— namespace std { template <class T> struct atomic { using value_type = T; static constexpr bool is_always_lock_free = implementation-defined; bool is_lock_free() const volatile noexcept; bool is_lock_free() const noexcept; void store(T, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; void store(T, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; T load(memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) const volatile noexcept; T load(memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) const noexcept; operator T() const volatile noexcept; operator T() const noexcept; T exchange(T, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; T exchange(T, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(T&, T, memory_order, memory_order) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(T&, T, memory_order, memory_order) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(T&, T, memory_order, memory_order) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(T&, T, memory_order, memory_order) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(T&, T, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(T&, T, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(T&, T, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(T&, T, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; atomic() noexcept = default; constexpr atomic(T) noexcept; atomic(const atomic&) = delete; atomic& operator=(const atomic&) = delete; atomic& operator=(const atomic&) volatile = delete; T operator=(T) volatile noexcept; T operator=(T) noexcept; }; }

[ Note

: *end note*

]Many operations are volatile-qualified.

The “volatile as device register”
semantics have not changed in the standard.

This qualification means that volatility is
preserved when applying these operations to volatile objects.

It does not mean that
operations on non-volatile objects become volatile.

— ```
atomic() noexcept = default;
```

```
constexpr atomic(T desired) noexcept;
```

Initialization is not an atomic operation ([intro.multithread]).

[ Note

: *end note*

]It is possible to have an access to an atomic object A
race with its construction, for example by communicating the address of the
just-constructed object A to another thread via
memory_order_relaxed operations on a suitable atomic pointer
variable, and then immediately accessing A in the receiving thread.

This results in undefined behavior.

— ```
#define ATOMIC_VAR_INIT(value) see below
```

```
static constexpr bool is_always_lock_free = implementation-defined;
```

```
bool is_lock_free() const volatile noexcept;
bool is_lock_free() const noexcept;
```

```
void store(T desired, memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
void store(T desired, memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept;
```

```
T operator=(T desired) volatile noexcept;
T operator=(T desired) noexcept;
```

```
T load(memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) const volatile noexcept;
T load(memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) const noexcept;
```

```
operator T() const volatile noexcept;
operator T() const noexcept;
```

```
T exchange(T desired, memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
T exchange(T desired, memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept;
```

Memory is affected according to the value of order.

These operations are atomic read-modify-write operations ([intro.multithread]).

```
bool compare_exchange_weak(T& expected, T desired,
memory_order success, memory_order failure) volatile noexcept;
bool compare_exchange_weak(T& expected, T desired,
memory_order success, memory_order failure) noexcept;
bool compare_exchange_strong(T& expected, T desired,
memory_order success, memory_order failure) volatile noexcept;
bool compare_exchange_strong(T& expected, T desired,
memory_order success, memory_order failure) noexcept;
bool compare_exchange_weak(T& expected, T desired,
memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
bool compare_exchange_weak(T& expected, T desired,
memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept;
bool compare_exchange_strong(T& expected, T desired,
memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
bool compare_exchange_strong(T& expected, T desired,
memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept;
```

It then atomically
compares the contents of the memory pointed to by this
for equality with that previously retrieved from expected,
and if true, replaces the contents of the memory pointed to
by this with that in desired.

If and only if the comparison is true, memory is affected according to the
value of success, and if the comparison is false, memory is affected according
to the value of failure.

When only one memory_order argument is
supplied, the value of success is order, and the value of
failure is order except that a value of memory_order_acq_rel
shall be replaced by the value memory_order_acquire and a value of
memory_order_release shall be replaced by the value
memory_order_relaxed.

If and only if the comparison is false then, after the atomic operation,
the contents of the memory in expected are replaced by the value
read from the memory pointed to by this during the atomic comparison.

If the operation returns true, these
operations are atomic read-modify-write
operations ([intro.multithread]) on the memory
pointed to by this.

Otherwise, these operations are atomic load operations on that memory.

[ Note

: *end note*

]For example, the effect of
compare_exchange_strong is

— if (memcmp(this, &expected, sizeof(*this)) == 0) memcpy(this, &desired, sizeof(*this)); else memcpy(expected, this, sizeof(*this));

[ Example

: *end example*

]The expected use of the compare-and-exchange operations is as follows.

The
compare-and-exchange operations will update expected when another iteration of
the loop is needed.

expected = current.load(); do { desired = function(expected); } while (!current.compare_exchange_weak(expected, desired));—

[ Example

: *end example*

]Because the expected value is updated only on failure,
code releasing the memory containing the expected value on success will work.

E.

g.

list head insertion will act atomically and would not introduce a
data race in the following code:

— do { p->next = head; // make new list node point to the current head } while (!head.compare_exchange_weak(p->next, p)); // try to insert

Remarks:
A weak compare-and-exchange operation may fail spuriously.

That is, even when
the contents of memory referred to by expected and this are
equal, it may return false and store back to expected the same memory
contents that were originally there.

[ Note

: *end note*

]This
spurious failure enables implementation of compare-and-exchange on a broader class of
machines, e.g., load-locked store-conditional machines. A
consequence of spurious failure is that nearly all uses of weak compare-and-exchange
will be in a loop.

When a compare-and-exchange is in a loop, the weak version will yield better performance
on some platforms.

When a weak compare-and-exchange would require a loop and a strong one
would not, the strong one is preferable.

— [ Note

: *end note*

]The memcpy and memcmp semantics of the compare-and-exchange
operations may result in failed comparisons for values that compare equal with
operator== if the underlying type has padding bits, trap bits, or alternate
representations of the same value.

Thus, compare_exchange_strong should be used
with extreme care.

On the other hand, compare_exchange_weak should converge
rapidly.

— There are specializations of the atomic
template for the integral types
char,
signed char,
unsigned char,
short,
unsigned short,
int,
unsigned int,
long,
unsigned long,
long long,
unsigned long long,
char16_t,
char32_t,
wchar_t,
and any other types needed by the typedefs in the header <cstdint>.

For each such integral type integral, the specialization
atomic<integral> provides additional atomic operations appropriate to integral types.

namespace std { template <> struct atomic<integral> { using value_type = integral; using difference_type = value_type; static constexpr bool is_always_lock_free = implementation-defined; bool is_lock_free() const volatile noexcept; bool is_lock_free() const noexcept; void store(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; void store(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; integral load(memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) const volatile noexcept; integral load(memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) const noexcept; operator integral() const volatile noexcept; operator integral() const noexcept; integral exchange(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; integral exchange(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(integral&, integral, memory_order, memory_order) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(integral&, integral, memory_order, memory_order) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(integral&, integral, memory_order, memory_order) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(integral&, integral, memory_order, memory_order) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(integral&, integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(integral&, integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(integral&, integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(integral&, integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; integral fetch_add(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; integral fetch_add(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; integral fetch_sub(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; integral fetch_sub(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; integral fetch_and(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; integral fetch_and(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; integral fetch_or(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; integral fetch_or(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; integral fetch_xor(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; integral fetch_xor(integral, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; atomic() noexcept = default; constexpr atomic(integral) noexcept; atomic(const atomic&) = delete; atomic& operator=(const atomic&) = delete; atomic& operator=(const atomic&) volatile = delete; integral operator=(integral) volatile noexcept; integral operator=(integral) noexcept; integral operator++(int) volatile noexcept; integral operator++(int) noexcept; integral operator--(int) volatile noexcept; integral operator--(int) noexcept; integral operator++() volatile noexcept; integral operator++() noexcept; integral operator--() volatile noexcept; integral operator--() noexcept; integral operator+=(integral) volatile noexcept; integral operator+=(integral) noexcept; integral operator-=(integral) volatile noexcept; integral operator-=(integral) noexcept; integral operator&=(integral) volatile noexcept; integral operator&=(integral) noexcept; integral operator|=(integral) volatile noexcept; integral operator|=(integral) noexcept; integral operator^=(integral) volatile noexcept; integral operator^=(integral) noexcept; }; }

The atomic integral specializations
are standard-layout structs.

They each have a trivial default constructor
and a trivial destructor.

The following operations perform arithmetic computations.

The key, operator, and computation correspondence is:

Table 138 — Atomic arithmetic computations

key | Op | Computation | key | Op | Computation |

add | + | addition | sub | - | subtraction |

or | | | bitwise inclusive or | xor | ^ | bitwise exclusive or |

and | & | bitwise and |

```
T fetch_key(T operand, memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
T fetch_key(T operand, memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept;
```

Effects: Atomically replaces the value pointed to by
this with the result of the computation applied to the
value pointed to by this and the given operand.

Memory is affected according to the value of order.

These operations are atomic read-modify-write operations ([intro.multithread]).

```
T operator op=(T operand) volatile noexcept;
T operator op=(T operand) noexcept;
```

namespace std { template <class T> struct atomic<T*> { using value_type = T*; using difference_type = ptrdiff_t; static constexpr bool is_always_lock_free = implementation-defined; bool is_lock_free() const volatile noexcept; bool is_lock_free() const noexcept; void store(T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; void store(T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; T* load(memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) const volatile noexcept; T* load(memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) const noexcept; operator T*() const volatile noexcept; operator T*() const noexcept; T* exchange(T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; T* exchange(T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(T*&, T*, memory_order, memory_order) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(T*&, T*, memory_order, memory_order) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(T*&, T*, memory_order, memory_order) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(T*&, T*, memory_order, memory_order) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(T*&, T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_weak(T*&, T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(T*&, T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; bool compare_exchange_strong(T*&, T*, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; T* fetch_add(ptrdiff_t, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; T* fetch_add(ptrdiff_t, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; T* fetch_sub(ptrdiff_t, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept; T* fetch_sub(ptrdiff_t, memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept; atomic() noexcept = default; constexpr atomic(T*) noexcept; atomic(const atomic&) = delete; atomic& operator=(const atomic&) = delete; atomic& operator=(const atomic&) volatile = delete; T* operator=(T*) volatile noexcept; T* operator=(T*) noexcept; T* operator++(int) volatile noexcept; T* operator++(int) noexcept; T* operator--(int) volatile noexcept; T* operator--(int) noexcept; T* operator++() volatile noexcept; T* operator++() noexcept; T* operator--() volatile noexcept; T* operator--() noexcept; T* operator+=(ptrdiff_t) volatile noexcept; T* operator+=(ptrdiff_t) noexcept; T* operator-=(ptrdiff_t) volatile noexcept; T* operator-=(ptrdiff_t) noexcept; }; }

There is a partial specialization of the atomic class template for pointers.

Specializations of this partial specialization are standard-layout structs.

They each have a trivial default constructor and a trivial destructor.

The following operations perform pointer arithmetic.

The key, operator,
and computation correspondence is:

Table 139 — Atomic pointer computations

Key | Op | Computation | Key | Op | Computation |

add | + | addition | sub | - | subtraction |

```
T* fetch_key(ptrdiff_t operand, memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
T* fetch_key(ptrdiff_t operand, memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept;
```

Effects: Atomically replaces the value pointed to by
this with the result of the computation applied to the
value pointed to by this and the given operand.

Memory is affected according to the value of order.

These operations are atomic read-modify-write operations ([intro.multithread]).

```
T* operator op=(ptrdiff_t operand) volatile noexcept;
T* operator op=(ptrdiff_t operand) noexcept;
```

```
T operator++(int) volatile noexcept;
T operator++(int) noexcept;
```

Effects: Equivalent to: return fetch_add(1);

```
T operator--(int) volatile noexcept;
T operator--(int) noexcept;
```

Effects: Equivalent to: return fetch_sub(1);

```
T operator++() volatile noexcept;
T operator++() noexcept;
```

```
T operator--() volatile noexcept;
T operator--() noexcept;
```

A non-member function template whose name matches the pattern
atomic_f or the pattern atomic_f_explicit
invokes the member function f, with the value of the
first parameter as the object expression and the values of the remaining parameters
(if any) as the arguments of the member function call, in order.

An argument
for a parameter of type atomic<T>::value_type* is dereferenced when
passed to the member function call.

If no such member function exists, the program is ill-formed.

```
template<class T>
void atomic_init(volatile atomic<T>* object, typename atomic<T>::value_type desired) noexcept;
template<class T>
void atomic_init(atomic<T>* object, typename atomic<T>::value_type desired) noexcept;
```

This function shall only be applied
to objects that have been default constructed, and then only once.

```
namespace std {
struct atomic_flag {
bool test_and_set(memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
bool test_and_set(memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept;
void clear(memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
void clear(memory_order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept;
atomic_flag() noexcept = default;
atomic_flag(const atomic_flag&) = delete;
atomic_flag& operator=(const atomic_flag&) = delete;
atomic_flag& operator=(const atomic_flag&) volatile = delete;
};
bool atomic_flag_test_and_set(volatile atomic_flag*) noexcept;
bool atomic_flag_test_and_set(atomic_flag*) noexcept;
bool atomic_flag_test_and_set_explicit(volatile atomic_flag*, memory_order) noexcept;
bool atomic_flag_test_and_set_explicit(atomic_flag*, memory_order) noexcept;
void atomic_flag_clear(volatile atomic_flag*) noexcept;
void atomic_flag_clear(atomic_flag*) noexcept;
void atomic_flag_clear_explicit(volatile atomic_flag*, memory_order) noexcept;
void atomic_flag_clear_explicit(atomic_flag*, memory_order) noexcept;
#define ATOMIC_FLAG_INIT see below
}
```

The atomic_flag type provides the classic test-and-set functionality.

It has two states, set and clear.

Operations on an object of type atomic_flag shall be lock-free.

The atomic_flag type is a standard-layout struct.

It has a trivial default constructor and a trivial destructor.

The macro ATOMIC_FLAG_INIT shall be defined in such a way that it can be used to initialize an object of type atomic_flag to the
clear state.

The macro can be used in the form:

atomic_flag guard = ATOMIC_FLAG_INIT;It is unspecified whether the macro can be used in other initialization contexts.

For a complete static-duration object, that initialization shall be static.

Unless initialized with ATOMIC_FLAG_INIT, it is unspecified whether an
atomic_flag object has an initial state of set or clear.

```
bool atomic_flag_test_and_set(volatile atomic_flag* object) noexcept;
bool atomic_flag_test_and_set(atomic_flag* object) noexcept;
bool atomic_flag_test_and_set_explicit(volatile atomic_flag* object, memory_order order) noexcept;
bool atomic_flag_test_and_set_explicit(atomic_flag* object, memory_order order) noexcept;
bool atomic_flag::test_and_set(memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
bool atomic_flag::test_and_set(memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept;
```

Memory is affected according to the value of
order.

These operations are atomic read-modify-write operations ([intro.multithread]).

```
void atomic_flag_clear(volatile atomic_flag* object) noexcept;
void atomic_flag_clear(atomic_flag* object) noexcept;
void atomic_flag_clear_explicit(volatile atomic_flag* object, memory_order order) noexcept;
void atomic_flag_clear_explicit(atomic_flag* object, memory_order order) noexcept;
void atomic_flag::clear(memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
void atomic_flag::clear(memory_order order = memory_order_seq_cst) noexcept;
```

Fences can have
acquire semantics, release semantics, or both.

A fence with acquire semantics is called
an *acquire fence*.

A fence with release semantics is called a *release
fence*.

A release fence A synchronizes with an acquire fence B if there exist
atomic operations X and Y, both operating on some atomic object
M, such that A is sequenced before X, X modifies
M, Y is sequenced before B, and Y reads the value
written by X or a value written by any side effect in the hypothetical release
sequence X would head if it were a release operation.

A release fence A synchronizes with an atomic operation B that
performs an acquire operation on an atomic object M if there exists an atomic
operation X such that A is sequenced before X, X
modifies M, and B reads the value written by X or a value
written by any side effect in the hypothetical release sequence X would head if
it were a release operation.

An atomic operation A that is a release operation on an atomic object
M synchronizes with an acquire fence B if there exists some atomic
operation X on M such that X is sequenced before B
and reads the value written by A or a value written by any side effect in the
release sequence headed by A.

```
extern "C" void atomic_thread_fence(memory_order order) noexcept;
```

Effects: Depending on the value of order, this operation:

- has no effects, if order == memory_order_relaxed;
- is an acquire fence, if order == memory_order_acquire || order == memory_order_consume;
- is a release fence, if order == memory_order_release;
- is both an acquire fence and a release fence, if order == memory_order_acq_rel;
- is a sequentially consistent acquire and release fence, if order == memory_order_seq_cst.

```
extern "C" void atomic_signal_fence(memory_order order) noexcept;
```

[ Note

: *end note*

]atomic_signal_fence can be used to specify the order in which actions
performed by the thread become visible to the signal handler.

Compiler optimizations and reorderings of loads and stores are inhibited in
the same way as with atomic_thread_fence, but the hardware fence instructions
that atomic_thread_fence would have inserted are not emitted.

—