32 Atomic operations library [atomics]

32.6 Class template atomic [atomics.types.generic]

32.6.2 Specializations for integers [atomics.types.int]

There are specializations of the atomic template for the integral types char, signed char, unsigned char, short, unsigned short, int, unsigned int, long, unsigned long, long long, unsigned long long, char16_­t, char32_­t, wchar_­t, and any other types needed by the typedefs in the header <cstdint>.
For each such integral type integral, the specialization atomic<integral> provides additional atomic operations appropriate to integral types.
[Note
:
For the specialization atomic<bool>, see [atomics.types.generic].
end note
]
namespace std {
  template<> struct atomic<integral> {
    using value_type = integral;
    using difference_type = value_type;
    static constexpr bool is_always_lock_free = implementation-defined;
    bool is_lock_free() const volatile noexcept;
    bool is_lock_free() const noexcept;
    void store(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
    void store(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) noexcept;
    integral load(memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) const volatile noexcept;
    integral load(memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) const noexcept;
    operator integral() const volatile noexcept;
    operator integral() const noexcept;
    integral exchange(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
    integral exchange(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) noexcept;
    bool compare_exchange_weak(integral&, integral,
                               memory_order, memory_order) volatile noexcept;
    bool compare_exchange_weak(integral&, integral,
                               memory_order, memory_order) noexcept;
    bool compare_exchange_strong(integral&, integral,
                                 memory_order, memory_order) volatile noexcept;
    bool compare_exchange_strong(integral&, integral,
                                 memory_order, memory_order) noexcept;
    bool compare_exchange_weak(integral&, integral,
                               memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
    bool compare_exchange_weak(integral&, integral,
                               memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) noexcept;
    bool compare_exchange_strong(integral&, integral,
                                 memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
    bool compare_exchange_strong(integral&, integral,
                                 memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) noexcept;
    integral fetch_add(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
    integral fetch_add(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) noexcept;
    integral fetch_sub(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
    integral fetch_sub(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) noexcept;
    integral fetch_and(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
    integral fetch_and(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) noexcept;
    integral fetch_or(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
    integral fetch_or(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) noexcept;
    integral fetch_xor(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) volatile noexcept;
    integral fetch_xor(integral, memory_order = memory_order::seq_cst) noexcept;

    atomic() noexcept = default;
    constexpr atomic(integral) noexcept;
    atomic(const atomic&) = delete;
    atomic& operator=(const atomic&) = delete;
    atomic& operator=(const atomic&) volatile = delete;
    integral operator=(integral) volatile noexcept;
    integral operator=(integral) noexcept;

    integral operator++(int) volatile noexcept;
    integral operator++(int) noexcept;
    integral operator--(int) volatile noexcept;
    integral operator--(int) noexcept;
    integral operator++() volatile noexcept;
    integral operator++() noexcept;
    integral operator--() volatile noexcept;
    integral operator--() noexcept;
    integral operator+=(integral) volatile noexcept;
    integral operator+=(integral) noexcept;
    integral operator-=(integral) volatile noexcept;
    integral operator-=(integral) noexcept;
    integral operator&=(integral) volatile noexcept;
    integral operator&=(integral) noexcept;
    integral operator|=(integral) volatile noexcept;
    integral operator|=(integral) noexcept;
    integral operator^=(integral) volatile noexcept;
    integral operator^=(integral) noexcept;
  };
}
The atomic integral specializations are standard-layout structs.
They each have a trivial default constructor and a trivial destructor.
Descriptions are provided below only for members that differ from the primary template.
The following operations perform arithmetic computations.
The key, operator, and computation correspondence is:
Table 130 — Atomic arithmetic computations
key
Op
Computation
key
Op
Computation
add
+
addition
sub
-
subtraction
or
|
bitwise inclusive or
xor
^
bitwise exclusive or
and
&
bitwise and
T fetch_key(T operand, memory_order order = memory_order::seq_cst) volatile noexcept; T fetch_key(T operand, memory_order order = memory_order::seq_cst) noexcept;
Effects: Atomically replaces the value pointed to by this with the result of the computation applied to the value pointed to by this and the given operand.
Memory is affected according to the value of order.
These operations are atomic read-modify-write operations ([intro.multithread]).
Returns: Atomically, the value pointed to by this immediately before the effects.
Remarks: For signed integer types, arithmetic is defined to use two's complement representation.
There are no undefined results.
T operator op=(T operand) volatile noexcept; T operator op=(T operand) noexcept;
Effects: Equivalent to: return fetch_­key(operand) op operand;