7 Standard conversions [conv]

7.6 Integral promotions [conv.prom]

A prvalue of an integer type other than bool, char16_­t, char32_­t, or wchar_­t whose integer conversion rank is less than the rank of int can be converted to a prvalue of type int if int can represent all the values of the source type; otherwise, the source prvalue can be converted to a prvalue of type unsigned int.

A prvalue of type char16_­t, char32_­t, or wchar_­t ([basic.fundamental]) can be converted to a prvalue of the first of the following types that can represent all the values of its underlying type: int, unsigned int, long int, unsigned long int, long long int, or unsigned long long int. If none of the types in that list can represent all the values of its underlying type, a prvalue of type char16_­t, char32_­t, or wchar_­t can be converted to a prvalue of its underlying type.

A prvalue of an unscoped enumeration type whose underlying type is not fixed ([dcl.enum]) can be converted to a prvalue of the first of the following types that can represent all the values of the enumeration (i.e., the values in the range to as described in [dcl.enum]): int, unsigned int, long int, unsigned long int, long long int, or unsigned long long int. If none of the types in that list can represent all the values of the enumeration, a prvalue of an unscoped enumeration type can be converted to a prvalue of the extended integer type with lowest integer conversion rank greater than the rank of long long in which all the values of the enumeration can be represented. If there are two such extended types, the signed one is chosen.

A prvalue of an unscoped enumeration type whose underlying type is fixed ([dcl.enum]) can be converted to a prvalue of its underlying type. Moreover, if integral promotion can be applied to its underlying type, a prvalue of an unscoped enumeration type whose underlying type is fixed can also be converted to a prvalue of the promoted underlying type.

A prvalue for an integral bit-field can be converted to a prvalue of type int if int can represent all the values of the bit-field; otherwise, it can be converted to unsigned int if unsigned int can represent all the values of the bit-field. If the bit-field is larger yet, no integral promotion applies to it. If the bit-field has an enumerated type, it is treated as any other value of that type for promotion purposes.

A prvalue of type bool can be converted to a prvalue of type int, with false becoming zero and true becoming one.

These conversions are called integral promotions.