26 Containers library [containers]

26.4 Associative containers [associative]

26.4.7 Class template multiset [multiset] Class template multiset overview [multiset.overview]

A multiset is an associative container that supports equivalent keys (possibly contains multiple copies of the same key value) and provides for fast retrieval of the keys themselves.
The multiset class supports bidirectional iterators.
A multiset satisfies all of the requirements of a container, of a reversible container, of an associative container, and of an allocator-aware container.
multiset also provides most operations described in [associative.reqmts] for duplicate keys.
This means that a multiset supports the a_­eq operations in [associative.reqmts] but not the a_­uniq operations.
For a multiset<Key> both the key_­type and value_­type are Key.
Descriptions are provided here only for operations on multiset that are not described in one of these tables and for operations where there is additional semantic information.
namespace std {
  template <class Key, class Compare = less<Key>,
            class Allocator = allocator<Key>>
  class multiset {
    // types:
    using key_type               = Key;
    using key_compare            = Compare;
    using value_type             = Key;
    using value_compare          = Compare;
    using allocator_type         = Allocator;
    using pointer                = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::pointer;
    using const_pointer          = typename allocator_traits<Allocator>::const_pointer;
    using reference              = value_type&;
    using const_reference        = const value_type&;
    using size_type              = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using difference_type        = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using iterator               = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using const_iterator         = implementation-defined; // see [container.requirements]
    using reverse_iterator       = std::reverse_iterator<iterator>;
    using const_reverse_iterator = std::reverse_iterator<const_iterator>;
    using node_type              = unspecified;

    // [multiset.cons], construct/copy/destroy
    multiset() : multiset(Compare()) { }
    explicit multiset(const Compare& comp, const Allocator& = Allocator());
    template <class InputIterator>
      multiset(InputIterator first, InputIterator last,
               const Compare& comp = Compare(), const Allocator& = Allocator());
    multiset(const multiset& x);
    multiset(multiset&& x);
    explicit multiset(const Allocator&);
    multiset(const multiset&, const Allocator&);
    multiset(multiset&&, const Allocator&);
    multiset(initializer_list<value_type>, const Compare& = Compare(),
             const Allocator& = Allocator());
    template <class InputIterator>
      multiset(InputIterator first, InputIterator last, const Allocator& a)
        : multiset(first, last, Compare(), a) { }
    multiset(initializer_list<value_type> il, const Allocator& a)
      : multiset(il, Compare(), a) { }
    multiset& operator=(const multiset& x);
    multiset& operator=(multiset&& x)
      noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::is_always_equal::value &&
    multiset& operator=(initializer_list<value_type>);
    allocator_type get_allocator() const noexcept;

    // iterators:
    iterator               begin() noexcept;
    const_iterator         begin() const noexcept;
    iterator               end() noexcept;
    const_iterator         end() const noexcept;

    reverse_iterator       rbegin() noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator rbegin() const noexcept;
    reverse_iterator       rend() noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator rend() const noexcept;

    const_iterator         cbegin() const noexcept;
    const_iterator         cend() const noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator crbegin() const noexcept;
    const_reverse_iterator crend() const noexcept;

    // capacity:
    bool      empty() const noexcept;
    size_type size() const noexcept;
    size_type max_size() const noexcept;

    // modifiers:
    template <class... Args> iterator emplace(Args&&... args);
    template <class... Args> iterator emplace_hint(const_iterator position, Args&&... args);
    iterator insert(const value_type& x);
    iterator insert(value_type&& x);
    iterator insert(const_iterator position, const value_type& x);
    iterator insert(const_iterator position, value_type&& x);
    template <class InputIterator>
      void insert(InputIterator first, InputIterator last);
    void insert(initializer_list<value_type>);

    node_type extract(const_iterator position);
    node_type extract(const key_type& x);
    iterator insert(node_type&& nh);
    iterator insert(const_iterator hint, node_type&& nh);

    iterator  erase(iterator position);
    iterator  erase(const_iterator position);
    size_type erase(const key_type& x);
    iterator  erase(const_iterator first, const_iterator last);
    void      swap(multiset&)
      noexcept(allocator_traits<Allocator>::is_always_equal::value &&
    void      clear() noexcept;

    template<class C2>
      void merge(multiset<Key, C2, Allocator>& source);
    template<class C2>
      void merge(multiset<Key, C2, Allocator>&& source);
    template<class C2>
      void merge(set<Key, C2, Allocator>& source);
    template<class C2>
      void merge(set<Key, C2, Allocator>&& source);

    // observers:
    key_compare key_comp() const;
    value_compare value_comp() const;

    // set operations:
    iterator       find(const key_type& x);
    const_iterator find(const key_type& x) const;
    template <class K> iterator       find(const K& x);
    template <class K> const_iterator find(const K& x) const;

    size_type      count(const key_type& x) const;
    template <class K> size_type count(const K& x) const;

    iterator       lower_bound(const key_type& x);
    const_iterator lower_bound(const key_type& x) const;
    template <class K> iterator       lower_bound(const K& x);
    template <class K> const_iterator lower_bound(const K& x) const;

    iterator       upper_bound(const key_type& x);
    const_iterator upper_bound(const key_type& x) const;
    template <class K> iterator       upper_bound(const K& x);
    template <class K> const_iterator upper_bound(const K& x) const;

    pair<iterator, iterator>               equal_range(const key_type& x);
    pair<const_iterator, const_iterator>   equal_range(const key_type& x) const;
    template <class K>
      pair<iterator, iterator>             equal_range(const K& x);
    template <class K>
      pair<const_iterator, const_iterator> equal_range(const K& x) const;

  template<class InputIterator,
           class Compare = less<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type>,
           class Allocator = allocator<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type>>
    multiset(InputIterator, InputIterator,
             Compare = Compare(), Allocator = Allocator())
      -> multiset<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type, Compare, Allocator>;

  template<class Key, class Compare = less<Key>, class Allocator = allocator<Key>>
    multiset(initializer_list<Key>, Compare = Compare(), Allocator = Allocator())
      -> multiset<Key, Compare, Allocator>;

  template<class InputIterator, class Allocator>
    multiset(InputIterator, InputIterator, Allocator)
      -> multiset<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type,
                  less<typename iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type>, Allocator>;

  template<class Key, class Allocator>
    multiset(initializer_list<Key>, Allocator) -> multiset<Key, less<Key>, Allocator>;

  // [multiset.special], specialized algorithms
  template <class Key, class Compare, class Allocator>
    void swap(multiset<Key, Compare, Allocator>& x,
              multiset<Key, Compare, Allocator>& y)