This subclause provides definitions for swappable types and expressions. In these definitions, let t denote an expression of type T, and let u denote an expression of type U.

An object t is *swappable with* an object u if and only if:

the expressions swap(t, u) and swap(u, t) are valid when evaluated in the context described below, and

these expressions have the following effects:

the object referred to by t has the value originally held by u and

the object referred to by u has the value originally held by t.

The context in which swap(t, u) and swap(u, t) are evaluated shall ensure that a binary non-member function named “swap” is selected via overload resolution on a candidate set that includes:

the two swap function templates defined in <utility> and

the lookup set produced by argument-dependent lookup.

[ Note: If T and U are both fundamental types or arrays of fundamental types and the declarations from the header <utility> are in scope, the overall lookup set described above is equivalent to that of the qualified name lookup applied to the expression std::swap(t, u) or std::swap(u, t) as appropriate. — end note ]

[ Note: It is unspecified whether a library component that has a swappable requirement includes the header <utility> to ensure an appropriate evaluation context. — end note ]

An rvalue or lvalue t is *swappable* if and only if t is
swappable with any rvalue or lvalue, respectively, of type T.

A type X satisfying any of the iterator requirements satisfies the requirements of ValueSwappable if, for any dereferenceable object x of type X, *x is swappable.

[ Example: User code can ensure that the evaluation of swap calls is performed in an appropriate context under the various conditions as follows:

#include <utility> // Requires: std::forward<T>(t) shall be swappable with std::forward<U>(u). template <class T, class U> void value_swap(T&& t, U&& u) { using std::swap; swap(std::forward<T>(t), std::forward<U>(u)); // OK: uses “swappable with” conditions // for rvalues and lvalues } // Requires: lvalues of T shall be swappable. template <class T> void lv_swap(T& t1, T& t2) { using std::swap; swap(t1, t2); // OK: uses swappable conditions for } // lvalues of type T namespace N { struct A { int m; }; struct Proxy { A* a; }; Proxy proxy(A& a) { return Proxy{ &a }; } void swap(A& x, Proxy p) { std::swap(x.m, p.a->m); // OK: uses context equivalent to swappable // conditions for fundamental types } void swap(Proxy p, A& x) { swap(x, p); } // satisfy symmetry constraint } int main() { int i = 1, j = 2; lv_swap(i, j); assert(i == 2 && j == 1); N::A a1 = { 5 }, a2 = { -5 }; value_swap(a1, proxy(a2)); assert(a1.m == -5 && a2.m == 5); }

— end example ]