A *constraint* is a sequence of logical operations and
operands that specifies requirements on template arguments.

The operands of a logical operation are constraints.

There are three different kinds of constraints:

In order for a constrained template to be instantiated ([temp.spec]),
its associated constraints
shall be satisfied as described in the following subclauses.

[ Note

: *end note*

]Forming the name of a specialization of
a class template,
a variable template, or
an alias template ([temp.names])
requires the satisfaction of its constraints.

Overload resolution
requires the satisfaction of constraints
on functions and function templates.

— There are two binary logical operations on constraints: conjunction
and disjunction.

A *conjunction* is a constraint taking two
operands.

If that is not satisfied, the conjunction is not satisfied.

Otherwise, the conjunction is satisfied if and only if the second
operand is satisfied.

A *disjunction* is a constraint taking two
operands.

If that is satisfied, the disjunction is satisfied.

Otherwise, the disjunction is satisfied if and only if the second
operand is satisfied.

[ Example

: *end example*

]template<typename T> constexpr bool get_value() { return T::value; } template<typename T> requires (sizeof(T) > 1) && get_value<T>() void f(T); // has associated constraint sizeof(T) > 1 ∧ get_value<T>() void f(int); f('a'); // OK: calls f(int)

In the satisfaction of the associated constraints
of f, the constraint sizeof(char) > 1 is not satisfied;
the second operand is not checked for satisfaction.

— An *atomic constraint* is formed from
an expression E
and a mapping from the template parameters
that appear within E to
template arguments involving the
template parameters of the constrained entity,
called the *parameter mapping* ([temp.constr.decl]).

Two atomic constraints are
*identical*
if they are formed from the same
*expression*
and the targets of the parameter mappings are equivalent
according to the rules for expressions described in [temp.over.link].

To determine if an atomic constraint is
*satisfied*,
the parameter mapping and template arguments are
first substituted into its expression.

If substitution results in an invalid type or expression,
the constraint is not satisfied.

Otherwise, the lvalue-to-rvalue conversion
is performed if necessary,
and E shall be a constant expression of type bool.

[ Example

: *end example*

]template<typename T> concept C = sizeof(T) == 4 && !true; // requires atomic constraints sizeof(T) == 4 and !true template<typename T> struct S { constexpr operator bool() const { return true; } }; template<typename T> requires (S<T>{}) void f(T); // #1 void f(int); // #2 void g() { f(0); // error: expression S<int>{} does not have type bool } // while checking satisfaction of deduced arguments of #1; // call is ill-formed even though #2 is a better match—