33 Thread support library [thread]

33.4 Mutual exclusion [thread.mutex]

33.4.3 Mutex requirements [thread.mutex.requirements]

33.4.3.2 Mutex types [thread.mutex.requirements.mutex]

The mutex types are the standard library types mutex, recursive_­mutex, timed_­mutex, recursive_­timed_­mutex, shared_­mutex, and shared_­timed_­mutex.
They shall meet the requirements set out in this section.
In this description, m denotes an object of a mutex type.
The mutex types shall meet the Lockable requirements.
The mutex types shall be DefaultConstructible and Destructible.
If initialization of an object of a mutex type fails, an exception of type system_­error shall be thrown.
The mutex types shall not be copyable or movable.
The error conditions for error codes, if any, reported by member functions of the mutex types shall be:
  • resource_­unavailable_­try_­again — if any native handle type manipulated is not available.
  • operation_­not_­permitted — if the thread does not have the privilege to perform the operation.
  • invalid_­argument — if any native handle type manipulated as part of mutex construction is incorrect.
The implementation shall provide lock and unlock operations, as described below.
For purposes of determining the existence of a data race, these behave as atomic operations ([intro.multithread]).
The lock and unlock operations on a single mutex shall appear to occur in a single total order.
[Note
:
This can be viewed as the modification order of the mutex.
end note
]
[Note
:
Construction and destruction of an object of a mutex type need not be thread-safe; other synchronization should be used to ensure that mutex objects are initialized and visible to other threads.
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]
The expression m.lock() shall be well-formed and have the following semantics:
Requires: If m is of type mutex, timed_­mutex, shared_­mutex, or shared_­timed_­mutex, the calling thread does not own the mutex.
Effects: Blocks the calling thread until ownership of the mutex can be obtained for the calling thread.
Postconditions: The calling thread owns the mutex.
Return type: void.
Synchronization: Prior unlock() operations on the same object shall synchronize with this operation.
Throws: system_­error when an exception is required ([thread.req.exception]).
Error conditions:
  • operation_­not_­permitted — if the thread does not have the privilege to perform the operation.
  • resource_­deadlock_­would_­occur — if the implementation detects that a deadlock would occur.
The expression m.try_­lock() shall be well-formed and have the following semantics:
Requires: If m is of type mutex, timed_­mutex, shared_­mutex, or shared_­timed_­mutex, the calling thread does not own the mutex.
Effects: Attempts to obtain ownership of the mutex for the calling thread without blocking.
If ownership is not obtained, there is no effect and try_­lock() immediately returns.
An implementation may fail to obtain the lock even if it is not held by any other thread.
[Note
:
This spurious failure is normally uncommon, but allows interesting implementations based on a simple compare and exchange ([atomics]).
end note
]
An implementation should ensure that try_­lock() does not consistently return false in the absence of contending mutex acquisitions.
Return type: bool.
Returns: true if ownership of the mutex was obtained for the calling thread, otherwise false.
Synchronization: If try_­lock() returns true, prior unlock() operations on the same object synchronize with this operation.
[Note
:
Since lock() does not synchronize with a failed subsequent try_­lock(), the visibility rules are weak enough that little would be known about the state after a failure, even in the absence of spurious failures.
end note
]
Throws: Nothing.
The expression m.unlock() shall be well-formed and have the following semantics:
Requires: The calling thread shall own the mutex.
Effects: Releases the calling thread's ownership of the mutex.
Return type: void.
Synchronization: This operation synchronizes with subsequent lock operations that obtain ownership on the same object.
Throws: Nothing.

33.4.3.2.1 Class mutex [thread.mutex.class]

namespace std {
  class mutex {
  public:
    constexpr mutex() noexcept;
    ~mutex();

    mutex(const mutex&) = delete;
    mutex& operator=(const mutex&) = delete;

    void lock();
    bool try_lock();
    void unlock();

    using native_handle_type = implementation-defined;          // see [thread.req.native]
    native_handle_type native_handle();                         // see [thread.req.native]
  };
}
The class mutex provides a non-recursive mutex with exclusive ownership semantics.
If one thread owns a mutex object, attempts by another thread to acquire ownership of that object will fail (for try_­lock()) or block (for lock()) until the owning thread has released ownership with a call to unlock().
[Note
:
After a thread A has called unlock(), releasing a mutex, it is possible for another thread B to lock the same mutex, observe that it is no longer in use, unlock it, and destroy it, before thread A appears to have returned from its unlock call.
Implementations are required to handle such scenarios correctly, as long as thread A doesn't access the mutex after the unlock call returns.
These cases typically occur when a reference-counted object contains a mutex that is used to protect the reference count.
end note
]
The class mutex shall satisfy all of the mutex requirements.
[Note
:
A program may deadlock if the thread that owns a mutex object calls lock() on that object.
If the implementation can detect the deadlock, a resource_­deadlock_­would_­occur error condition may be observed.
end note
]
The behavior of a program is undefined if it destroys a mutex object owned by any thread or a thread terminates while owning a mutex object.

33.4.3.2.2 Class recursive_­mutex [thread.mutex.recursive]

namespace std {
  class recursive_mutex {
  public:
    recursive_mutex();
    ~recursive_mutex();

    recursive_mutex(const recursive_mutex&) = delete;
    recursive_mutex& operator=(const recursive_mutex&) = delete;

    void lock();
    bool try_lock() noexcept;
    void unlock();

    using native_handle_type = implementation-defined;          // see [thread.req.native]
    native_handle_type native_handle();                         // see [thread.req.native]
  };
}
The class recursive_­mutex provides a recursive mutex with exclusive ownership semantics.
If one thread owns a recursive_­mutex object, attempts by another thread to acquire ownership of that object will fail (for try_­lock()) or block (for lock()) until the first thread has completely released ownership.
The class recursive_­mutex shall satisfy all of the mutex requirements.
A thread that owns a recursive_­mutex object may acquire additional levels of ownership by calling lock() or try_­lock() on that object.
It is unspecified how many levels of ownership may be acquired by a single thread.
If a thread has already acquired the maximum level of ownership for a recursive_­mutex object, additional calls to try_­lock() shall fail, and additional calls to lock() shall throw an exception of type system_­error.
A thread shall call unlock() once for each level of ownership acquired by calls to lock() and try_­lock().
Only when all levels of ownership have been released may ownership be acquired by another thread.
The behavior of a program is undefined if:
  • it destroys a recursive_­mutex object owned by any thread or
  • a thread terminates while owning a recursive_­mutex object.