31 Input/output library [input.output]

31.7 Formatting and manipulators [iostream.format]

31.7.5 Input streams [input.streams] Class template basic_­istream [istream] General [istream.general]

When a function is specified with a type placeholder of extended-floating-point-type, the implementation provides overloads for all cv-unqualified extended floating-point types ([basic.fundamental]) in lieu of extended-floating-​point-type.
namespace std { template<class charT, class traits = char_traits<charT>> class basic_istream : virtual public basic_ios<charT, traits> { public: // types (inherited from basic_­ios) using char_type = charT; using int_type = typename traits::int_type; using pos_type = typename traits::pos_type; using off_type = typename traits::off_type; using traits_type = traits; // [istream.cons], constructor/destructor explicit basic_istream(basic_streambuf<charT, traits>* sb); virtual ~basic_istream(); // [istream.sentry], prefix/suffix class sentry; // [istream.formatted], formatted input basic_istream& operator>>(basic_istream& (*pf)(basic_istream&)); basic_istream& operator>>(basic_ios<charT, traits>& (*pf)(basic_ios<charT, traits>&)); basic_istream& operator>>(ios_base& (*pf)(ios_base&)); basic_istream& operator>>(bool& n); basic_istream& operator>>(short& n); basic_istream& operator>>(unsigned short& n); basic_istream& operator>>(int& n); basic_istream& operator>>(unsigned int& n); basic_istream& operator>>(long& n); basic_istream& operator>>(unsigned long& n); basic_istream& operator>>(long long& n); basic_istream& operator>>(unsigned long long& n); basic_istream& operator>>(float& f); basic_istream& operator>>(double& f); basic_istream& operator>>(long double& f); basic_istream& operator>>(extended-floating-point-type& f); basic_istream& operator>>(void*& p); basic_istream& operator>>(basic_streambuf<char_type, traits>* sb); // [istream.unformatted], unformatted input streamsize gcount() const; int_type get(); basic_istream& get(char_type& c); basic_istream& get(char_type* s, streamsize n); basic_istream& get(char_type* s, streamsize n, char_type delim); basic_istream& get(basic_streambuf<char_type, traits>& sb); basic_istream& get(basic_streambuf<char_type, traits>& sb, char_type delim); basic_istream& getline(char_type* s, streamsize n); basic_istream& getline(char_type* s, streamsize n, char_type delim); basic_istream& ignore(streamsize n = 1, int_type delim = traits::eof()); int_type peek(); basic_istream& read (char_type* s, streamsize n); streamsize readsome(char_type* s, streamsize n); basic_istream& putback(char_type c); basic_istream& unget(); int sync(); pos_type tellg(); basic_istream& seekg(pos_type); basic_istream& seekg(off_type, ios_base::seekdir); protected: // [istream.cons], copy/move constructor basic_istream(const basic_istream&) = delete; basic_istream(basic_istream&& rhs); // [istream.assign], assignment and swap basic_istream& operator=(const basic_istream&) = delete; basic_istream& operator=(basic_istream&& rhs); void swap(basic_istream& rhs); }; // [istream.extractors], character extraction templates template<class charT, class traits> basic_istream<charT, traits>& operator>>(basic_istream<charT, traits>&, charT&); template<class traits> basic_istream<char, traits>& operator>>(basic_istream<char, traits>&, unsigned char&); template<class traits> basic_istream<char, traits>& operator>>(basic_istream<char, traits>&, signed char&); template<class charT, class traits, size_t N> basic_istream<charT, traits>& operator>>(basic_istream<charT, traits>&, charT(&)[N]); template<class traits, size_t N> basic_istream<char, traits>& operator>>(basic_istream<char, traits>&, unsigned char(&)[N]); template<class traits, size_t N> basic_istream<char, traits>& operator>>(basic_istream<char, traits>&, signed char(&)[N]); }
The class template basic_­istream defines a number of member function signatures that assist in reading and interpreting input from sequences controlled by a stream buffer.
Two groups of member function signatures share common properties: the formatted input functions (or extractors) and the unformatted input functions. Both groups of input functions are described as if they obtain (or extract) input characters by calling rdbuf()->sbumpc() or rdbuf()->sgetc().
They may use other public members of istream. Constructors [istream.cons]

explicit basic_istream(basic_streambuf<charT, traits>* sb);
Effects: Initializes the base class subobject with basic_­ios​::​init(sb) ([basic.ios.cons]).
Postconditions: gcount() == 0.
basic_istream(basic_istream&& rhs);
Effects: Default constructs the base class, copies the gcount() from rhs, calls basic_­ios<charT, traits>​::​move(rhs) to initialize the base class, and sets the gcount() for rhs to 0.
virtual ~basic_istream();
Remarks: Does not perform any operations of rdbuf(). Assignment and swap [istream.assign]

basic_istream& operator=(basic_istream&& rhs);
Effects: Equivalent to: swap(rhs).
Returns: *this.
void swap(basic_istream& rhs);
Effects: Calls basic_­ios<charT, traits>​::​swap(rhs).
Exchanges the values returned by gcount() and rhs.gcount(). Class basic_­istream​::​sentry [istream.sentry]

namespace std { template<class charT, class traits> class basic_istream<charT, traits>::sentry { bool ok_; // exposition only public: explicit sentry(basic_istream& is, bool noskipws = false); ~sentry(); explicit operator bool() const { return ok_; } sentry(const sentry&) = delete; sentry& operator=(const sentry&) = delete; }; }
The class sentry defines a class that is responsible for doing exception safe prefix and suffix operations.
explicit sentry(basic_istream& is, bool noskipws = false);
Effects: If is.good() is false, calls is.setstate(failbit).
Otherwise, prepares for formatted or unformatted input.
First, if is.tie() is not a null pointer, the function calls is.tie()->flush() to synchronize the output sequence with any associated external C stream.
Except that this call can be suppressed if the put area of is.tie() is empty.
Further an implementation is allowed to defer the call to flush until a call of is.rdbuf()->underflow() occurs.
If no such call occurs before the sentry object is destroyed, the call to flush may be eliminated entirely.287
If noskipws is zero and is.flags() & ios_­base​::​skipws is nonzero, the function extracts and discards each character as long as the next available input character c is a whitespace character.
If is.rdbuf()->sbumpc() or is.rdbuf()->sgetc() returns traits​::​eof(), the function calls setstate(failbit | eofbit) (which may throw ios_­base​::​failure).
Remarks: The constructor explicit sentry(basic_istream& is, bool noskipws = false) uses the currently imbued locale in is, to determine whether the next input character is whitespace or not.
To decide if the character c is a whitespace character, the constructor performs as if it executes the following code fragment: const ctype<charT>& ctype = use_facet<ctype<charT>>(is.getloc()); if (ctype.is(ctype.space, c) != 0) // c is a whitespace character.
If, after any preparation is completed, is.good() is true, ok_­ != false otherwise, ok_­ == false.
During preparation, the constructor may call setstate(failbit) (which may throw ios_­base​::​​failure ([iostate.flags])).288
Effects: None.
explicit operator bool() const;
Returns: ok_­.
This will be possible only in functions that are part of the library.
The semantics of the constructor used in user code is as specified.
The sentry constructor and destructor can also perform additional implementation-dependent operations.