24 Ranges library [ranges]

24.5 Range utilities [range.utility]

24.5.2 View interface [view.interface]

The class template view_­interface is a helper for defining view-like types that offer a container-like interface.
It is parameterized with the type that is derived from it.
namespace std::ranges {
  template<class D>
    requires is_class_v<D> && same_as<D, remove_cv_t<D>>
  class view_interface : public view_base {
  private:
    constexpr D& derived() noexcept {                   // exposition only
      return static_cast<D&>(*this);
    }
    constexpr const D& derived() const noexcept {       // exposition only
      return static_cast<const D&>(*this);
    }
  public:
    constexpr bool empty() requires forward_range<D> {
      return ranges::begin(derived()) == ranges::end(derived());
    }
    constexpr bool empty() const requires forward_range<const D> {
      return ranges::begin(derived()) == ranges::end(derived());
    }

    constexpr explicit operator bool()
      requires requires { ranges::empty(derived()); } {
        return !ranges::empty(derived());
      }
    constexpr explicit operator bool() const
      requires requires { ranges::empty(derived()); } {
        return !ranges::empty(derived());
      }

    constexpr auto data() requires contiguous_iterator<iterator_t<D>> {
      return to_address(ranges::begin(derived()));
    }
    constexpr auto data() const
      requires range<const D> && contiguous_iterator<iterator_t<const D>> {
        return to_address(ranges::begin(derived()));
      }

    constexpr auto size() requires forward_range<D> &&
      sized_sentinel_for<sentinel_t<D>, iterator_t<D>> {
        return ranges::end(derived()) - ranges::begin(derived());
      }
    constexpr auto size() const requires forward_range<const D> &&
      sized_sentinel_for<sentinel_t<const D>, iterator_t<const D>> {
        return ranges::end(derived()) - ranges::begin(derived());
      }

    constexpr decltype(auto) front() requires forward_range<D>;
    constexpr decltype(auto) front() const requires forward_range<const D>;

    constexpr decltype(auto) back() requires bidirectional_range<D> && common_range<D>;
    constexpr decltype(auto) back() const
      requires bidirectional_range<const D> && common_range<const D>;

    template<random_access_range R = D>
      constexpr decltype(auto) operator[](range_difference_t<R> n) {
        return ranges::begin(derived())[n];
      }
    template<random_access_range R = const D>
      constexpr decltype(auto) operator[](range_difference_t<R> n) const {
        return ranges::begin(derived())[n];
      }
  };
}
The template parameter D for view_­interface may be an incomplete type.
Before any member of the resulting specialization of view_­interface other than special member functions is referenced, D shall be complete, and model both derived_­from<view_­interface<D>> and view.

24.5.2.1 Members [view.interface.members]

constexpr decltype(auto) front() requires forward_range<D>; constexpr decltype(auto) front() const requires forward_range<const D>;
Preconditions: !empty().
Effects: Equivalent to: return *ranges​::​begin(derived());
constexpr decltype(auto) back() requires bidirectional_range<D> && common_range<D>; constexpr decltype(auto) back() const requires bidirectional_range<const D> && common_range<const D>;
Preconditions: !empty().
Effects: Equivalent to: return *ranges​::​prev(ranges​::​end(derived()));