# 25 Algorithms library [algorithms]

## 25.8 Sorting and related operations [alg.sorting]

### 25.8.7 Set operations on sorted structures [alg.set.operations]

#### 25.8.7.1 General [alg.set.operations.general]

Subclause [alg.set.operations] defines all the basic set operations on sorted structures.
They also work with multisets ([multiset]) containing multiple copies of equivalent elements.
The semantics of the set operations are generalized to multisets in a standard way by defining set_­union to contain the maximum number of occurrences of every element, set_­intersection to contain the minimum, and so on.

#### 25.8.7.2includes[includes]

```template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2> constexpr bool includes(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1, InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2); template<class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2> bool includes(ExecutionPolicy&& exec, ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1, ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2); template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class Compare> constexpr bool includes(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1, InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2, Compare comp); template<class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2, class Compare> bool includes(ExecutionPolicy&& exec, ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1, ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2, Compare comp); template<input_­iterator I1, sentinel_­for<I1> S1, input_­iterator I2, sentinel_­for<I2> S2, class Proj1 = identity, class Proj2 = identity, indirect_­strict_­weak_­order<projected<I1, Proj1>, projected<I2, Proj2>> Comp = ranges::less> constexpr bool ranges::includes(I1 first1, S1 last1, I2 first2, S2 last2, Comp comp = {}, Proj1 proj1 = {}, Proj2 proj2 = {}); template<input_­range R1, input_­range R2, class Proj1 = identity, class Proj2 = identity, indirect_­strict_­weak_­order<projected<iterator_t<R1>, Proj1>, projected<iterator_t<R2>, Proj2>> Comp = ranges::less> constexpr bool ranges::includes(R1&& r1, R2&& r2, Comp comp = {}, Proj1 proj1 = {}, Proj2 proj2 = {}); ```
Let comp be less{}, proj1 be identity{}, and proj2 be identity{}, for the overloads with no parameters by those names.
Preconditions: The ranges [first1, last1) and [first2, last2) are sorted with respect to comp and proj1 or proj2, respectively.
Returns: true if and only if [first2, last2) is a subsequence of [first1, last1).
[Note 1:
A sequence S is a subsequence of another sequence T if S can be obtained from T by removing some, all, or none of T's elements and keeping the remaining elements in the same order.
â€” end note]
Complexity: At most 2 * ((last1 - first1) + (last2 - first2)) - 1 comparisons and applications of each projection.

#### 25.8.7.3set_­union[set.union]

```template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator> constexpr OutputIterator set_union(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1, InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2, OutputIterator result); template<class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2, class ForwardIterator> ForwardIterator set_union(ExecutionPolicy&& exec, ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1, ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2, ForwardIterator result); template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator, class Compare> constexpr OutputIterator set_union(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1, InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2, OutputIterator result, Compare comp); template<class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2, class ForwardIterator, class Compare> ForwardIterator set_union(ExecutionPolicy&& exec, ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1, ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2, ForwardIterator result, Compare comp); template<input_­iterator I1, sentinel_­for<I1> S1, input_­iterator I2, sentinel_­for<I2> S2, weakly_­incrementable O, class Comp = ranges::less, class Proj1 = identity, class Proj2 = identity> requires mergeable<I1, I2, O, Comp, Proj1, Proj2> constexpr ranges::set_union_result<I1, I2, O> ranges::set_union(I1 first1, S1 last1, I2 first2, S2 last2, O result, Comp comp = {}, Proj1 proj1 = {}, Proj2 proj2 = {}); template<input_­range R1, input_­range R2, weakly_­incrementable O, class Comp = ranges::less, class Proj1 = identity, class Proj2 = identity> requires mergeable<iterator_t<R1>, iterator_t<R2>, O, Comp, Proj1, Proj2> constexpr ranges::set_union_result<borrowed_iterator_t<R1>, borrowed_iterator_t<R2>, O> ranges::set_union(R1&& r1, R2&& r2, O result, Comp comp = {}, Proj1 proj1 = {}, Proj2 proj2 = {}); ```
Let comp be less{}, and proj1 and proj2 be identity{} for the overloads with no parameters by those names.
Preconditions: The ranges [first1, last1) and [first2, last2) are sorted with respect to comp and proj1 or proj2, respectively.
The resulting range does not overlap with either of the original ranges.
Effects: Constructs a sorted union of the elements from the two ranges; that is, the set of elements that are present in one or both of the ranges.
Returns: Let result_­last be the end of the constructed range.
Returns
• result_­last for the overloads in namespace std.
• {last1, last2, result_­last} for the overloads in namespace ranges.
Complexity: At most 2 * ((last1 - first1) + (last2 - first2)) - 1 comparisons and applications of each projection.
Remarks: Stable ([algorithm.stable]).
If [first1, last1) contains m elements that are equivalent to each other and [first2, last2) contains n elements that are equivalent to them, then all m elements from the first range are copied to the output range, in order, and then the final elements from the second range are copied to the output range, in order.

#### 25.8.7.4set_­intersection[set.intersection]

```template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator> constexpr OutputIterator set_intersection(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1, InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2, OutputIterator result); template<class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2, class ForwardIterator> ForwardIterator set_intersection(ExecutionPolicy&& exec, ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1, ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2, ForwardIterator result); template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator, class Compare> constexpr OutputIterator set_intersection(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1, InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2, OutputIterator result, Compare comp); template<class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2, class ForwardIterator, class Compare> ForwardIterator set_intersection(ExecutionPolicy&& exec, ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1, ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2, ForwardIterator result, Compare comp); template<input_­iterator I1, sentinel_­for<I1> S1, input_­iterator I2, sentinel_­for<I2> S2, weakly_­incrementable O, class Comp = ranges::less, class Proj1 = identity, class Proj2 = identity> requires mergeable<I1, I2, O, Comp, Proj1, Proj2> constexpr ranges::set_intersection_result<I1, I2, O> ranges::set_intersection(I1 first1, S1 last1, I2 first2, S2 last2, O result, Comp comp = {}, Proj1 proj1 = {}, Proj2 proj2 = {}); template<input_­range R1, input_­range R2, weakly_­incrementable O, class Comp = ranges::less, class Proj1 = identity, class Proj2 = identity> requires mergeable<iterator_t<R1>, iterator_t<R2>, O, Comp, Proj1, Proj2> constexpr ranges::set_intersection_result<borrowed_iterator_t<R1>, borrowed_iterator_t<R2>, O> ranges::set_intersection(R1&& r1, R2&& r2, O result, Comp comp = {}, Proj1 proj1 = {}, Proj2 proj2 = {}); ```
Let comp be less{}, and proj1 and proj2 be identity{} for the overloads with no parameters by those names.
Preconditions: The ranges [first1, last1) and [first2, last2) are sorted with respect to comp and proj1 or proj2, respectively.
The resulting range does not overlap with either of the original ranges.
Effects: Constructs a sorted intersection of the elements from the two ranges; that is, the set of elements that are present in both of the ranges.
Returns: Let result_­last be the end of the constructed range.
Returns
• result_­last for the overloads in namespace std.
• {last1, last2, result_­last} for the overloads in namespace ranges.
Complexity: At most 2 * ((last1 - first1) + (last2 - first2)) - 1 comparisons and applications of each projection.
Remarks: Stable ([algorithm.stable]).
If [first1, last1) contains m elements that are equivalent to each other and [first2, last2) contains n elements that are equivalent to them, the first elements are copied from the first range to the output range, in order.

#### 25.8.7.5set_­difference[set.difference]

```template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator> constexpr OutputIterator set_difference(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1, InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2, OutputIterator result); template<class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2, class ForwardIterator> ForwardIterator set_difference(ExecutionPolicy&& exec, ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1, ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2, ForwardIterator result); template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator, class Compare> constexpr OutputIterator set_difference(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1, InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2, OutputIterator result, Compare comp); template<class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2, class ForwardIterator, class Compare> ForwardIterator set_difference(ExecutionPolicy&& exec, ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1, ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2, ForwardIterator result, Compare comp); template<input_­iterator I1, sentinel_­for<I1> S1, input_­iterator I2, sentinel_­for<I2> S2, weakly_­incrementable O, class Comp = ranges::less, class Proj1 = identity, class Proj2 = identity> requires mergeable<I1, I2, O, Comp, Proj1, Proj2> constexpr ranges::set_difference_result<I1, O> ranges::set_difference(I1 first1, S1 last1, I2 first2, S2 last2, O result, Comp comp = {}, Proj1 proj1 = {}, Proj2 proj2 = {}); template<input_­range R1, input_­range R2, weakly_­incrementable O, class Comp = ranges::less, class Proj1 = identity, class Proj2 = identity> requires mergeable<iterator_t<R1>, iterator_t<R2>, O, Comp, Proj1, Proj2> constexpr ranges::set_difference_result<borrowed_iterator_t<R1>, O> ranges::set_difference(R1&& r1, R2&& r2, O result, Comp comp = {}, Proj1 proj1 = {}, Proj2 proj2 = {}); ```
Let comp be less{}, and proj1 and proj2 be identity{} for the overloads with no parameters by those names.
Preconditions: The ranges [first1, last1) and [first2, last2) are sorted with respect to comp and proj1 or proj2, respectively.
The resulting range does not overlap with either of the original ranges.
Effects: Copies the elements of the range [first1, last1) which are not present in the range [first2, last2) to the range beginning at result.
The elements in the constructed range are sorted.
Returns: Let result_­last be the end of the constructed range.
Returns
• result_­last for the overloads in namespace std.
• {last1, result_­last} for the overloads in namespace ranges.
Complexity: At most 2 * ((last1 - first1) + (last2 - first2)) - 1 comparisons and applications of each projection.
Remarks: If [first1, last1) contains m elements that are equivalent to each other and [first2, last2) contains n elements that are equivalent to them, the last elements from [first1, last1) is copied to the output range, in order.

#### 25.8.7.6set_­symmetric_­difference[set.symmetric.difference]

```template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator> constexpr OutputIterator set_symmetric_difference(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1, InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2, OutputIterator result); template<class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2, class ForwardIterator> ForwardIterator set_symmetric_difference(ExecutionPolicy&& exec, ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1, ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2, ForwardIterator result); template<class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class OutputIterator, class Compare> constexpr OutputIterator set_symmetric_difference(InputIterator1 first1, InputIterator1 last1, InputIterator2 first2, InputIterator2 last2, OutputIterator result, Compare comp); template<class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2, class ForwardIterator, class Compare> ForwardIterator set_symmetric_difference(ExecutionPolicy&& exec, ForwardIterator1 first1, ForwardIterator1 last1, ForwardIterator2 first2, ForwardIterator2 last2, ForwardIterator result, Compare comp); template<input_­iterator I1, sentinel_­for<I1> S1, input_­iterator I2, sentinel_­for<I2> S2, weakly_­incrementable O, class Comp = ranges::less, class Proj1 = identity, class Proj2 = identity> requires mergeable<I1, I2, O, Comp, Proj1, Proj2> constexpr ranges::set_symmetric_difference_result<I1, I2, O> ranges::set_symmetric_difference(I1 first1, S1 last1, I2 first2, S2 last2, O result, Comp comp = {}, Proj1 proj1 = {}, Proj2 proj2 = {}); template<input_­range R1, input_­range R2, weakly_­incrementable O, class Comp = ranges::less, class Proj1 = identity, class Proj2 = identity> requires mergeable<iterator_t<R1>, iterator_t<R2>, O, Comp, Proj1, Proj2> constexpr ranges::set_symmetric_difference_result<borrowed_iterator_t<R1>, borrowed_iterator_t<R2>, O> ranges::set_symmetric_difference(R1&& r1, R2&& r2, O result, Comp comp = {}, Proj1 proj1 = {}, Proj2 proj2 = {}); ```
Let comp be less{}, and proj1 and proj2 be identity{} for the overloads with no parameters by those names.
Preconditions: The ranges [first1, last1) and [first2, last2) are sorted with respect to comp and proj1 or proj2, respectively.
The resulting range does not overlap with either of the original ranges.
Effects: Copies the elements of the range [first1, last1) that are not present in the range [first2, last2), and the elements of the range [first2, last2) that are not present in the range [first1, last1) to the range beginning at result.
The elements in the constructed range are sorted.
Returns: Let result_­last be the end of the constructed range.
Returns
• result_­last for the overloads in namespace std.
• {last1, last2, result_­last} for the overloads in namespace ranges.
Complexity: At most 2 * ((last1 - first1) + (last2 - first2)) - 1 comparisons and applications of each projection.
Remarks: Stable ([algorithm.stable]).
If [first1, last1) contains m elements that are equivalent to each other and [first2, last2) contains n elements that are equivalent to them, then of those elements shall be copied to the output range: the last of these elements from [first1, last1) if , and the last of these elements from [first2, last2) if .
In either case, the elements are copied in order.