Annex C (informative) Compatibility [diff]

C.1 C++ and ISO C [diff.iso]

This subclause lists the differences between C++ and ISO C, by the chapters of this document.

C.1.1 Clause [lex]: lexical conventions [diff.lex]

[lex.key]
Change: New Keywords
New keywords are added to C++; see [lex.key].

Rationale: These keywords were added in order to implement the new semantics of C++.

Effect on original feature: Change to semantics of well-defined feature.
Any ISO C programs that used any of these keywords as identifiers are not valid C++ programs.

Difficulty of converting: Syntactic transformation.
Converting one specific program is easy.
Converting a large collection of related programs takes more work.

How widely used: Common.
[lex.ccon]
Change: Type of character literal is changed from int to char.

Rationale: This is needed for improved overloaded function argument type matching.
For example:
int function( int i );
int function( char c );

function( 'x' );
It is preferable that this call match the second version of function rather than the first.

Effect on original feature: Change to semantics of well-defined feature.
ISO C programs which depend on
sizeof('x') == sizeof(int)
will not work the same as C++ programs.

Difficulty of converting: Simple.

How widely used: Programs which depend upon sizeof('x') are probably rare.
Subclause [lex.string]:
Change: String literals made const.

The type of a string literal is changed from “array of char” to “array of const char.
The type of a char16_­t string literal is changed from “array of some-integer-type” to “array of const char16_­t.
The type of a char32_­t string literal is changed from “array of some-integer-type” to “array of const char32_­t.
The type of a wide string literal is changed from “array of wchar_­t” to “array of const wchar_­t.

Rationale: This avoids calling an inappropriate overloaded function, which might expect to be able to modify its argument.

Effect on original feature: Change to semantics of well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Syntactic transformation.
The fix is to add a cast:
char* p = "abc";                // valid in C, invalid in C++
void f(char*) {
  char* p = (char*)"abc";       // OK: cast added
  f(p);
  f((char*)"def");              // OK: cast added
}

How widely used: Programs that have a legitimate reason to treat string literals as pointers to potentially modifiable memory are probably rare.

C.1.2 Clause [basic]: basic concepts [diff.basic]

[basic.def]
Change: C++ does not have “tentative definitions” as in C.

E.
g.
, at file scope,
int i;
int i;
is valid in C, invalid in C++.
This makes it impossible to define mutually referential file-local static objects, if initializers are restricted to the syntactic forms of C.
For example,
struct X { int i; struct X* next; };

static struct X a;
static struct X b = { 0, &a };
static struct X a = { 1, &b };

Rationale: This avoids having different initialization rules for fundamental types and user-defined types.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.
In C++, the initializer for one of a set of mutually-referential file-local static objects must invoke a function call to achieve the initialization.

How widely used: Seldom.
[basic.scope]
Change: A struct is a scope in C++, not in C.

Rationale: Class scope is crucial to C++, and a struct is a class.

Effect on original feature: Change to semantics of well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.

How widely used: C programs use struct extremely frequently, but the change is only noticeable when struct, enumeration, or enumerator names are referred to outside the struct.
The latter is probably rare.
[basic.link] [also [dcl.type]]
Change: A name of file scope that is explicitly declared const, and not explicitly declared extern, has internal linkage, while in C it would have external linkage.

Rationale: Because const objects may be used as values during translation in C++, this feature urges programmers to provide an explicit initializer for each const object.
This feature allows the user to put const objects in source files that are included in more than one translation unit.

Effect on original feature: Change to semantics of well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.

How widely used: Seldom.
[basic.start.main]
Change: The main function cannot be called recursively and cannot have its address taken.

Rationale: The main function may require special actions.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Trivial: create an intermediary function such as mymain(argc, argv).

How widely used: Seldom.
[basic.types]
Change: C allows “compatible types” in several places, C++ does not.

For example, otherwise-identical struct types with different tag names are “compatible” in C but are distinctly different types in C++.

Rationale: Stricter type checking is essential for C++.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.
The “typesafe linkage” mechanism will find many, but not all, of such problems.
Those problems not found by typesafe linkage will continue to function properly, according to the “layout compatibility rules” of this International Standard.

How widely used: Common.

C.1.3 Clause [conv]: standard conversions [diff.conv]

[conv.ptr]
Change: Converting void* to a pointer-to-object type requires casting.
char a[10];
void* b=a;
void foo() {
  char* c=b;
}
ISO C will accept this usage of pointer to void being assigned to a pointer to object type.
C++ will not.

Rationale: C++ tries harder than C to enforce compile-time type safety.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Could be automated.
Violations will be diagnosed by the C++ translator.
The fix is to add a cast.
For example:
char* c = (char*) b;

How widely used: This is fairly widely used but it is good programming practice to add the cast when assigning pointer-to-void to pointer-to-object.
Some ISO C translators will give a warning if the cast is not used.

C.1.4 Clause [expr]: expressions [diff.expr]

[expr.call]
Change: Implicit declaration of functions is not allowed.

Rationale: The type-safe nature of C++.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.
Note: the original feature was labeled as “obsolescent” in ISO C.

Difficulty of converting: Syntactic transformation.
Facilities for producing explicit function declarations are fairly widespread commercially.

How widely used: Common.
[expr.post.incr], [expr.pre.incr]
Change: Decrement operator is not allowed with bool operand.

Rationale: Feature with surprising semantics.

Effect on original feature: A valid ISO C expression utilizing the decrement operator on a bool lvalue (for instance, via the C typedef in <stdbool.h>) is ill-formed in this International Standard.
[expr.sizeof], [expr.cast]
Change: Types must be defined in declarations, not in expressions.

In C, a sizeof expression or cast expression may define a new type.
For example,
p = (void*)(struct x {int i;} *)0;
defines a new type, struct x.

Rationale: This prohibition helps to clarify the location of definitions in the source code.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Syntactic transformation.

How widely used: Seldom.
[expr.cond], [expr.ass], [expr.comma]
Change: The result of a conditional expression, an assignment expression, or a comma expression may be an lvalue.

Rationale: C++ is an object-oriented language, placing relatively more emphasis on lvalues.
For example, functions may return lvalues.

Effect on original feature: Change to semantics of well-defined feature.
Some C expressions that implicitly rely on lvalue-to-rvalue conversions will yield different results.
For example,
char arr[100];
sizeof(0, arr)
yields 100 in C++ and sizeof(char*) in C.

Difficulty of converting: Programs must add explicit casts to the appropriate rvalue.

How widely used: Rare.

C.1.5 Clause [stmt.stmt]: statements [diff.stat]

[stmt.switch], [stmt.goto]
Change: It is now invalid to jump past a declaration with explicit or implicit initializer (except across entire block not entered).

Rationale: Constructors used in initializers may allocate resources which need to be de-allocated upon leaving the block.
Allowing jump past initializers would require complicated runtime determination of allocation.
Furthermore, any use of the uninitialized object could be a disaster.
With this simple compile-time rule, C++ assures that if an initialized variable is in scope, then it has assuredly been initialized.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.

How widely used: Seldom.
[stmt.return]
Change: It is now invalid to return (explicitly or implicitly) from a function which is declared to return a value without actually returning a value.

Rationale: The caller and callee may assume fairly elaborate return-value mechanisms for the return of class objects.
If some flow paths execute a return without specifying any value, the implementation must embody many more complications.
Besides, promising to return a value of a given type, and then not returning such a value, has always been recognized to be a questionable practice, tolerated only because very-old C had no distinction between void functions and int functions.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.
Add an appropriate return value to the source code, such as zero.

How widely used: Seldom.
For several years, many existing C implementations have produced warnings in this case.

C.1.6 Clause [dcl.dcl]: declarations [diff.dcl]

[dcl.stc]
Change: In C++, the static or extern specifiers can only be applied to names of objects or functions.

Using these specifiers with type declarations is illegal in C++.
In C, these specifiers are ignored when used on type declarations.
Example:
static struct S {               // valid C, invalid in C++
  int i;
};

Rationale: Storage class specifiers don't have any meaning when associated with a type.
In C++, class members can be declared with the static storage class specifier.
Allowing storage class specifiers on type declarations could render the code confusing for users.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Syntactic transformation.

How widely used: Seldom.
[dcl.stc]
Change: In C++, register is not a storage class specifier.

Rationale: The storage class specifier had no effect in C++.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Syntactic transformation.

How widely used: Common.
[dcl.typedef]
Change: A C++ typedef name must be different from any class type name declared in the same scope (except if the typedef is a synonym of the class name with the same name).
In C, a typedef name and a struct tag name declared in the same scope can have the same name (because they have different name spaces).
Example:
typedef struct name1 { /* ... */ } name1;         // valid C and C++
struct name { /* ... */ };
typedef int name;               // valid C, invalid C++

Rationale: For ease of use, C++ doesn't require that a type name be prefixed with the keywords class, struct or union when used in object declarations or type casts.
Example:
class name { /* ... */ };
name i;                         // i has type class name

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.
One of the 2 types has to be renamed.

How widely used: Seldom.
[dcl.type] [see also [basic.link]]
Change: const objects must be initialized in C++ but can be left uninitialized in C.

Rationale: A const object cannot be assigned to so it must be initialized to hold a useful value.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.

How widely used: Seldom.
[dcl.type]
Change: Banning implicit int.
In C++ a decl-specifier-seq must contain a type-specifier, unless it is followed by a declarator for a constructor, a destructor, or a conversion function.
In the following example, the left-hand column presents valid C; the right-hand column presents equivalent C++ :
void f(const parm);            void f(const int parm);
const n = 3;                   const int n = 3;
main()                         int main()
    /* ... */                      /* ... */

Rationale: In C++, implicit int creates several opportunities for ambiguity between expressions involving function-like casts and declarations.
Explicit declaration is increasingly considered to be proper style.
Liaison with WG14 (C) indicated support for (at least) deprecating implicit int in the next revision of C.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Syntactic transformation.
Could be automated.

How widely used: Common.
[dcl.spec.auto]
Change: The keyword auto cannot be used as a storage class specifier.
void f() {
  auto int x;     // valid C, invalid C++
}

Rationale: Allowing the use of auto to deduce the type of a variable from its initializer results in undesired interpretations of auto as a storage class specifier in certain contexts.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Syntactic transformation.

How widely used: Rare.
[dcl.enum]
Change: C++ objects of enumeration type can only be assigned values of the same enumeration type.
In C, objects of enumeration type can be assigned values of any integral type.
Example:
enum color { red, blue, green };
enum color c = 1;               // valid C, invalid C++

Rationale: The type-safe nature of C++.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Syntactic transformation.
(The type error produced by the assignment can be automatically corrected by applying an explicit cast.)

How widely used: Common.
[dcl.enum]
Change: In C++, the type of an enumerator is its enumeration.
In C, the type of an enumerator is int.
Example:
enum e { A };
sizeof(A) == sizeof(int)        // in C
sizeof(A) == sizeof(e)          // in C++
/* and sizeof(int) is not necessarily equal to sizeof(e) */

Rationale: In C++, an enumeration is a distinct type.

Effect on original feature: Change to semantics of well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.

How widely used: Seldom.
The only time this affects existing C code is when the size of an enumerator is taken.
Taking the size of an enumerator is not a common C coding practice.

C.1.7 Clause [dcl.decl]: declarators [diff.decl]

[dcl.fct]
Change: In C++, a function declared with an empty parameter list takes no arguments.
In C, an empty parameter list means that the number and type of the function arguments are unknown.
Example:
int f();            // means   int f(void) in C++
                    // int f( unknown ) in C

Rationale: This is to avoid erroneous function calls (i.e., function calls with the wrong number or type of arguments).
Effect on original feature: Change to semantics of well-defined feature.
This feature was marked as “obsolescent” in C.

Difficulty of converting: Syntactic transformation.
The function declarations using C incomplete declaration style must be completed to become full prototype declarations.
A program may need to be updated further if different calls to the same (non-prototype) function have different numbers of arguments or if the type of corresponding arguments differed.

How widely used: Common.
[dcl.fct] [see [expr.sizeof]]
Change: In C++, types may not be defined in return or parameter types.
In C, these type definitions are allowed.
Example:
void f( struct S { int a; } arg ) {}    // valid C, invalid C++
enum E { A, B, C } f() {}               // valid C, invalid C++

Rationale: When comparing types in different translation units, C++ relies on name equivalence when C relies on structural equivalence.
Regarding parameter types: since the type defined in a parameter list would be in the scope of the function, the only legal calls in C++ would be from within the function itself.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.
The type definitions must be moved to file scope, or in header files.

How widely used: Seldom.
This style of type definition is seen as poor coding style.
[dcl.fct.def]
Change: In C++, the syntax for function definition excludes the “old-style” C function.
In C, “old-style” syntax is allowed, but deprecated as “obsolescent”.

Rationale: Prototypes are essential to type safety.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Syntactic transformation.

How widely used: Common in old programs, but already known to be obsolescent.
[dcl.init.string]
Change: In C++, when initializing an array of character with a string, the number of characters in the string (including the terminating '\0') must not exceed the number of elements in the array.
In C, an array can be initialized with a string even if the array is not large enough to contain the string-terminating '\0'.
Example:
char array[4] = "abcd";         // valid C, invalid C++

Rationale: When these non-terminated arrays are manipulated by standard string functions, there is potential for major catastrophe.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.
The arrays must be declared one element bigger to contain the string terminating '\0'.

How widely used: Seldom.
This style of array initialization is seen as poor coding style.

C.1.8 Clause [class]: classes [diff.class]

[class.name] [see also [dcl.typedef]]
Change: In C++, a class declaration introduces the class name into the scope where it is declared and hides any object, function or other declaration of that name in an enclosing scope.
In C, an inner scope declaration of a struct tag name never hides the name of an object or function in an outer scope.
Example:
int x[99];
void f() {
  struct x { int a; };
  sizeof(x);  /* size of the array in C */
  /* size of the struct in C++ */
}

Rationale: This is one of the few incompatibilities between C and C++ that can be attributed to the new C++ name space definition where a name can be declared as a type and as a non-type in a single scope causing the non-type name to hide the type name and requiring that the keywords class, struct, union or enum be used to refer to the type name.
This new name space definition provides important notational conveniences to C++ programmers and helps making the use of the user-defined types as similar as possible to the use of fundamental types.
The advantages of the new name space definition were judged to outweigh by far the incompatibility with C described above.

Effect on original feature: Change to semantics of well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.
If the hidden name that needs to be accessed is at global scope, the ​::​ C++ operator can be used.
If the hidden name is at block scope, either the type or the struct tag has to be renamed.

How widely used: Seldom.
[class.bit]
Change: Bit-fields of type plain int are signed.

Rationale: Leaving the choice of signedness to implementations could lead to inconsistent definitions of template specializations.
For consistency, the implementation freedom was eliminated for non-dependent types, too.

Effect on original feature: The choice is implementation-defined in C, but not so in C++.

Difficulty of converting: Syntactic transformation.

How widely used: Seldom.
[class.nest]
Change: In C++, the name of a nested class is local to its enclosing class.
In C the name of the nested class belongs to the same scope as the name of the outermost enclosing class.
Example:
struct X {
  struct Y { /* ... */ } y;
};
struct Y yy;                    // valid C, invalid C++

Rationale: C++ classes have member functions which require that classes establish scopes.
The C rule would leave classes as an incomplete scope mechanism which would prevent C++ programmers from maintaining locality within a class.
A coherent set of scope rules for C++ based on the C rule would be very complicated and C++ programmers would be unable to predict reliably the meanings of nontrivial examples involving nested or local functions.

Effect on original feature: Change to semantics of well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.
To make the struct type name visible in the scope of the enclosing struct, the struct tag could be declared in the scope of the enclosing struct, before the enclosing struct is defined.
Example:
struct Y;                       // struct Y and struct X are at the same scope
struct X {
  struct Y { /* ... */ } y;
};
All the definitions of C struct types enclosed in other struct definitions and accessed outside the scope of the enclosing struct could be exported to the scope of the enclosing struct.
Note: this is a consequence of the difference in scope rules, which is documented in [basic.scope].

How widely used: Seldom.
[class.nested.type]
Change: In C++, a typedef name may not be redeclared in a class definition after being used in that definition.
Example:
typedef int I;
struct S {
  I i;
  int I;                  // valid C, invalid C++
};

Rationale: When classes become complicated, allowing such a redefinition after the type has been used can create confusion for C++ programmers as to what the meaning of I really is.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.
Either the type or the struct member has to be renamed.

How widely used: Seldom.

C.1.9 Clause [special]: special member functions [diff.special]

[class.copy]
Change: Copying volatile objects.
The implicitly-declared copy constructor and implicitly-declared copy assignment operator cannot make a copy of a volatile lvalue.
For example, the following is valid in ISO C:
struct X { int i; };
volatile struct X x1 = {0};
struct X x2 = x1;               // invalid C++
struct X x3;
x3 = x1;                        // also invalid C++

Rationale: Several alternatives were debated at length.
Changing the parameter to volatile const X& would greatly complicate the generation of efficient code for class objects.
Discussion of providing two alternative signatures for these implicitly-defined operations raised unanswered concerns about creating ambiguities and complicating the rules that specify the formation of these operators according to the bases and members.

Effect on original feature: Deletion of semantically well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.
If volatile semantics are required for the copy, a user-declared constructor or assignment must be provided.
If non-volatile semantics are required, an explicit const_­cast can be used.

How widely used: Seldom.

C.1.10 Clause [cpp]: preprocessing directives [diff.cpp]

[cpp.predefined]
Change: Whether __STDC__ is defined and if so, what its value is, are implementation-defined.

Rationale: C++ is not identical to ISO C.
Mandating that __STDC__ be defined would require that translators make an incorrect claim.
Each implementation must choose the behavior that will be most useful to its marketplace.

Effect on original feature: Change to semantics of well-defined feature.

Difficulty of converting: Semantic transformation.

How widely used: Programs and headers that reference __STDC__ are quite common.

C.2 C++ and ISO C++ 2003 [diff.cpp03]

This subclause lists the differences between C++ and ISO C++ 2003 (ISO/IEC 14882:2003, Programming Languages — C++), by the chapters of this document.

C.2.1 Clause [lex]: lexical conventions [diff.cpp03.lex]

[lex.pptoken]
Change: New kinds of string literals.

Rationale: Required for new features.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code may fail to compile or produce different results in this International Standard.
Specifically, macros named R, u8, u8R, u, uR, U, UR, or LR will not be expanded when adjacent to a string literal but will be interpreted as part of the string literal.
For example,
#define u8 "abc"
const char* s = u8"def";        // Previously "abcdef", now "def"
[lex.pptoken]
Change: User-defined literal string support.

Rationale: Required for new features.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code may fail to compile or produce different results in this International Standard, as the following example illustrates.
#define _x "there"
"hello"_x         // #1
Previously, #1 would have consisted of two separate preprocessing tokens and the macro _­x would have been expanded.
In this International Standard, #1 consists of a single preprocessing token, so the macro is not expanded.
[lex.key]
Change: New keywords.

Rationale: Required for new features.

Effect on original feature: Added to Table 5, the following identifiers are new keywords: alignas, alignof, char16_­t, char32_­t, constexpr, decltype, noexcept, nullptr, static_­assert, and thread_­local.
Valid C++ 2003 code using these identifiers is invalid in this International Standard.
[lex.icon]
Change: Type of integer literals.

Rationale: C99 compatibility.

Effect on original feature: Certain integer literals larger than can be represented by long could change from an unsigned integer type to signed long long.

C.2.2 Clause [conv]: standard conversions [diff.cpp03.conv]

[conv.ptr]
Change: Only literals are integer null pointer constants.

Rationale: Removing surprising interactions with templates and constant expressions.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code may fail to compile or produce different results in this International Standard, as the following example illustrates:
void f(void *);  // #1
void f(...);     // #2
template<int N> void g() {
  f(0*N);        // calls #2; used to call #1
}

C.2.3 Clause [expr]: expressions [diff.cpp03.expr]

[expr.mul]
Change: Specify rounding for results of integer / and %.

Rationale: Increase portability, C99 compatibility.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code that uses integer division rounds the result toward 0 or toward negative infinity, whereas this International Standard always rounds the result toward 0.
[expr.log.and]
Change: && is valid in a type-name.

Rationale: Required for new features.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code may fail to compile or produce different results in this International Standard, as the following example illustrates:
bool b1 = new int && false;           // previously false, now ill-formed
struct S { operator int(); };
bool b2 = &S::operator int && false;  // previously false, now ill-formed

C.2.4 Clause [dcl.dcl]: declarations [diff.cpp03.dcl.dcl]

[dcl.spec]
Change: Remove auto as a storage class specifier.

Rationale: New feature.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code that uses the keyword auto as a storage class specifier may be invalid in this International Standard.
In this International Standard, auto indicates that the type of a variable is to be deduced from its initializer expression.

C.2.5 Clause [dcl.decl]: declarators [diff.cpp03.dcl.decl]

[dcl.init.list]
Change: Narrowing restrictions in aggregate initializers.

Rationale: Catches bugs.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code may fail to compile in this International Standard.
For example, the following code is valid in C++ 2003 but invalid in this International Standard because double to int is a narrowing conversion:
int x[] = { 2.0 };

C.2.6 Clause [special]: special member functions [diff.cpp03.special]

[class.ctor], [class.dtor], [class.copy]
Change: Implicitly-declared special member functions are defined as deleted when the implicit definition would have been ill-formed.

Rationale: Improves template argument deduction failure.

Effect on original feature: A valid C++ 2003 program that uses one of these special member functions in a context where the definition is not required (e.g., in an expression that is not potentially evaluated) becomes ill-formed.
[class.dtor] (destructors)
Change: User-declared destructors have an implicit exception specification.

Rationale: Clarification of destructor requirements.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code may execute differently in this International Standard.
In particular, destructors that throw exceptions will call std​::​terminate (without calling std​::​unexpected) if their exception specification is non-throwing.

C.2.7 Clause [temp]: templates [diff.cpp03.temp]

[temp.param]
Change: Remove export.

Rationale: No implementation consensus.

Effect on original feature: A valid C++ 2003 declaration containing export is ill-formed in this International Standard.
[temp.arg]
Change: Remove whitespace requirement for nested closing template right angle brackets.

Rationale: Considered a persistent but minor annoyance.
Template aliases representing non-class types would exacerbate whitespace issues.

Effect on original feature: Change to semantics of well-defined expression.
A valid C++ 2003 expression containing a right angle bracket (“>”) followed immediately by another right angle bracket may now be treated as closing two templates.
For example, the following code is valid in C++ 2003 because “>>” is a right-shift operator, but invalid in this International Standard because “>>” closes two templates.
template <class T> struct X { };
template <int N> struct Y { };
X< Y< 1 >> 2 > > x;
[temp.dep.candidate]
Change: Allow dependent calls of functions with internal linkage.

Rationale: Overly constrained, simplify overload resolution rules.

Effect on original feature: A valid C++ 2003 program could get a different result than this International Standard.

C.2.8 Clause [library]: library introduction [diff.cpp03.library]

[library][thread]
Change: New reserved identifiers.

Rationale: Required by new features.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code that uses any identifiers added to the C++ standard library by this International Standard may fail to compile or produce different results in this International Standard.
A comprehensive list of identifiers used by the C++ standard library can be found in the Index of Library Names in this International Standard.
[headers]
Change: New headers.

Rationale: New functionality.

Effect on original feature: The following C++ headers are new: <array>, <atomic>, <chrono>, <codecvt>, <condition_­variable>, <forward_­list>, <future>, <initializer_­list>, <mutex>, <random>, <ratio>, <regex>, <scoped_­allocator>, <system_­error>, <thread>, <tuple>, <typeindex>, <type_­traits>,
<unordered_­map>, and <unordered_­set>.
In addition the following C compatibility headers are new: <ccomplex>, <cfenv>, <cinttypes>, <cstdalign>, <cstdbool>, <cstdint>, <ctgmath>, and <cuchar>.
Valid C++ 2003 code that #includes headers with these names may be invalid in this International Standard.
[swappable.requirements]
Effect on original feature: Function swap moved to a different header
Rationale: Remove dependency on <algorithm> for swap.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code that has been compiled expecting swap to be in <algorithm> may have to instead include <utility>.
[namespace.posix]
Change: New reserved namespace.

Rationale: New functionality.

Effect on original feature: The global namespace posix is now reserved for standardization.
Valid C++ 2003 code that uses a top-level namespace posix may be invalid in this International Standard.
[res.on.macro.definitions]
Change: Additional restrictions on macro names.

Rationale: Avoid hard to diagnose or non-portable constructs.

Effect on original feature: Names of attribute identifiers may not be used as macro names.
Valid C++ 2003 code that defines override, final, carries_­dependency, or noreturn as macros is invalid in this International Standard.

C.2.9 Clause [language.support]: language support library [diff.cpp03.language.support]

[new.delete.single]
Change: Linking new and delete operators.

Rationale: The two throwing single-object signatures of operator new and operator delete are now specified to form the base functionality for the other operators.
This clarifies that replacing just these two signatures changes others, even if they are not explicitly changed.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code that replaces global new or delete operators may execute differently in this International Standard.
For example, the following program should write "custom deallocation" twice, once for the single-object delete and once for the array delete.
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <new>

void* operator new(std::size_t size) throw(std::bad_alloc) {
  return std::malloc(size);
}

void operator delete(void* ptr) throw() {
  std::puts("custom deallocation");
  std::free(ptr);
}

int main() {
  int* i = new int;
  delete i;                     // single-object delete
  int* a = new int[3];
  delete [] a;                  // array delete
}
[new.delete.single]
Change: operator new may throw exceptions other than std​::​bad_­alloc.

Rationale: Consistent application of noexcept.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code that assumes that global operator new only throws std​::​bad_­alloc may execute differently in this International Standard.

C.2.10 Clause [diagnostics]: diagnostics library [diff.cpp03.diagnostics]

[errno]
Change: Thread-local error numbers.

Rationale: Support for new thread facilities.

Effect on original feature: Valid but implementation-specific C++ 2003 code that relies on errno being the same across threads may change behavior in this International Standard.

C.2.11 Clause [utilities]: general utilities library [diff.cpp03.utilities]

[util.dynamic.safety]
Change: Minimal support for garbage-collected regions.

Rationale: Required by new feature.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code, compiled without traceable pointer support, that interacts with newer C++ code using regions declared reachable may have different runtime behavior.
[refwrap], [arithmetic.operations], [comparisons], [logical.operations], [bitwise.operations], [depr.negators]
Change: Standard function object types no longer derived from std​::​unary_­function or std​::​binary_­function.

Rationale: Superseded by new feature; unary_­function and binary_­function are no longer defined.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code that depends on function object types being derived from unary_­function or binary_­function may fail to compile in this International Standard.

C.2.12 Clause [strings]: strings library [diff.cpp03.strings]

[string.classes]
Change: basic_­string requirements no longer allow reference-counted strings.

Rationale: Invalidation is subtly different with reference-counted strings.
This change regularizes behavior for this International Standard.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code may execute differently in this International Standard.
[string.require]
Change: Loosen basic_­string invalidation rules.

Rationale: Allow small-string optimization.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code may execute differently in this International Standard.
Some const member functions, such as data and c_­str, no longer invalidate iterators.

C.2.13 Clause [containers]: containers library [diff.cpp03.containers]

[container.requirements]
Change: Complexity of size() member functions now constant.

Rationale: Lack of specification of complexity of size() resulted in divergent implementations with inconsistent performance characteristics.

Effect on original feature: Some container implementations that conform to C++ 2003 may not conform to the specified size() requirements in this International Standard.
Adjusting containers such as std​::​list to the stricter requirements may require incompatible changes.
[container.requirements]
Change: Requirements change: relaxation.

Rationale: Clarification.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code that attempts to meet the specified container requirements may now be over-specified.
Code that attempted to be portable across containers may need to be adjusted as follows:
  • not all containers provide size(); use empty() instead of size() == 0;
  • not all containers are empty after construction (array);
  • not all containers have constant complexity for swap() (array).
[container.requirements]
Change: Requirements change: default constructible.

Rationale: Clarification of container requirements.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code that attempts to explicitly instantiate a container using a user-defined type with no default constructor may fail to compile.
[sequence.reqmts], [associative.reqmts]
Change: Signature changes: from void return types.

Rationale: Old signature threw away useful information that may be expensive to recalculate.

Effect on original feature: The following member functions have changed:
  • erase(iter) for set, multiset, map, multimap
  • erase(begin, end) for set, multiset, map, multimap
  • insert(pos, num, val) for vector, deque, list, forward_­list
  • insert(pos, beg, end) for vector, deque, list, forward_­list
Valid C++ 2003 code that relies on these functions returning void (e.g., code that creates a pointer to member function that points to one of these functions) will fail to compile with this International Standard.
[sequence.reqmts], [associative.reqmts]
Change: Signature changes: from iterator to const_­iterator parameters.

Rationale: Overspecification.

Effect on original feature: The signatures of the following member functions changed from taking an iterator to taking a const_­iterator:
  • insert(iter, val) for vector, deque, list, set, multiset, map, multimap
  • insert(pos, beg, end) for vector, deque, list, forward_­list
  • erase(begin, end) for set, multiset, map, multimap
  • all forms of list​::​splice
  • all forms of list​::​merge
Valid C++ 2003 code that uses these functions may fail to compile with this International Standard.
[sequence.reqmts], [associative.reqmts]
Change: Signature changes: resize.

Rationale: Performance, compatibility with move semantics.

Effect on original feature: For vector, deque, and list the fill value passed to resize is now passed by reference instead of by value, and an additional overload of resize has been added.
Valid C++ 2003 code that uses this function may fail to compile with this International Standard.

C.2.14 Clause [algorithms]: algorithms library [diff.cpp03.algorithms]

[algorithms.general]
Change: Result state of inputs after application of some algorithms.

Rationale: Required by new feature.

Effect on original feature: A valid C++ 2003 program may detect that an object with a valid but unspecified state has a different valid but unspecified state with this International Standard.
For example, std​::​remove and std​::​remove_­if may leave the tail of the input sequence with a different set of values than previously.

C.2.15 Clause [numerics]: numerics library [diff.cpp03.numerics]

[complex.numbers]
Change: Specified representation of complex numbers.

Rationale: Compatibility with C99.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code that uses implementation-specific knowledge about the binary representation of the required template specializations of std​::​complex may not be compatible with this International Standard.

C.2.16 Clause [input.output]: input/output library [diff.cpp03.input.output]

[istream::sentry], [ostream::sentry], [iostate.flags]
Change: Specify use of explicit in existing boolean conversion functions.

Rationale: Clarify intentions, avoid workarounds.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code that relies on implicit boolean conversions will fail to compile with this International Standard.
Such conversions occur in the following conditions:
  • passing a value to a function that takes an argument of type bool;
  • using operator== to compare to false or true;
  • returning a value from a function with a return type of bool;
  • initializing members of type bool via aggregate initialization;
  • initializing a const bool& which would bind to a temporary.
[ios::failure]
Change: Change base class of std​::​ios_­base​::​failure.

Rationale: More detailed error messages.

Effect on original feature: std​::​ios_­base​::​failure is no longer derived directly from std​::​exception, but is now derived from std​::​system_­error, which in turn is derived from std​::​runtime_­error.
Valid C++ 2003 code that assumes that std​::​ios_­base​::​failure is derived directly from std​::​exception may execute differently in this International Standard.
[ios.base]
Change: Flag types in std​::​ios_­base are now bitmasks with values defined as constexpr static members.

Rationale: Required for new features.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2003 code that relies on std​::​ios_­base flag types being represented as std​::​bitset or as an integer type may fail to compile with this International Standard.
For example:
#include <iostream>

int main() {
  int flag = std::ios_base::hex;
  std::cout.setf(flag);         // error: setf does not take argument of type int
}

C.3 C++ and ISO C++ 2011 [diff.cpp11]

This subclause lists the differences between C++ and ISO C++ 2011 (ISO/IEC 14882:2011, Programming Languages — C++), by the chapters of this document.

C.3.1 Clause [lex]: lexical conventions [diff.cpp11.lex]

[lex.ppnumber]
Change: pp-number can contain one or more single quotes.

Rationale: Necessary to enable single quotes as digit separators.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2011 code may fail to compile or may change meaning in this International Standard.
For example, the following code is valid both in C++ 2011 and in this International Standard, but the macro invocation produces different outcomes because the single quotes delimit a character literal in C++ 2011, whereas they are digit separators in this International Standard:
#define M(x, ...) __VA_ARGS__
int x[2] = { M(1'2,3'4, 5) };
// int x[2] = { 5 };      — C++ 2011
// int x[2] = { 3'4, 5 }; — this International Standard

C.3.2 Clause [basic]: basic concepts [diff.cpp11.basic]

[basic.stc.dynamic.deallocation]
Change: New usual (non-placement) deallocator.

Rationale: Required for sized deallocation.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2011 code could declare a global placement allocation function and deallocation function as follows:
void* operator new(std::size_t, std::size_t);
void operator delete(void*, std::size_t) noexcept;
In this International Standard, however, the declaration of operator delete might match a predefined usual (non-placement) operator delete ([basic.stc.dynamic]).
If so, the program is ill-formed, as it was for class member allocation functions and deallocation functions ([expr.new]).

C.3.3 Clause [expr]: expressions [diff.cpp11.expr]

[expr.cond]
Change: A conditional expression with a throw expression as its second or third operand keeps the type and value category of the other operand.

Rationale: Formerly mandated conversions (lvalue-to-rvalue, array-to-pointer, and function-to-pointer standard conversions), especially the creation of the temporary due to lvalue-to-rvalue conversion, were considered gratuitous and surprising.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2011 code that relies on the conversions may behave differently in this International Standard:
struct S {
  int x = 1;
  void mf() { x = 2; }
};
int f(bool cond) {
  S s;
  (cond ? s : throw 0).mf();
  return s.x;
}
In C++ 2011, f(true) returns 1.
In this International Standard, it returns 2.
sizeof(true ? "" : throw 0)
In C++ 2011, the expression yields sizeof(const char*).
In this International Standard, it yields sizeof(const char[1]).

C.3.4 Clause [dcl.dcl]: declarations [diff.cpp11.dcl.dcl]

[dcl.constexpr]
Change: constexpr non-static member functions are not implicitly const member functions.

Rationale: Necessary to allow constexpr member functions to mutate the object.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2011 code may fail to compile in this International Standard.
For example, the following code is valid in C++ 2011 but invalid in this International Standard because it declares the same member function twice with different return types:
struct S {
  constexpr const int &f();
  int &f();
};

C.3.5 Clause [dcl.decl]: declarators [diff.cpp11.dcl.decl]

[dcl.init.aggr]
Change: Classes with default member initializers can be aggregates.

Rationale: Necessary to allow default member initializers to be used by aggregate initialization.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2011 code may fail to compile or may change meaning in this International Standard.
struct S { // Aggregate in C++ 2014 onwards.
  int m = 1;
};
struct X {
  operator int();
  operator S();
};
X a{};
S b{a};  // uses copy constructor in C++ 2011,
         // performs aggregate initialization in this International Standard

C.3.6 Clause [library]: library introduction [diff.cpp11.library]

[headers]
Change: New header.

Rationale: New functionality.

Effect on original feature: The C++ header <shared_­mutex> is new.
Valid C++ 2011 code that #includes a header with that name may be invalid in this International Standard.

C.3.7 Clause [input.output]: input/output library [diff.cpp11.input.output]

[c.files]
Change: gets is not defined.

Rationale: Use of gets is considered dangerous.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2011 code that uses the gets function may fail to compile in this International Standard.

C.4 C++ and ISO C++ 2014 [diff.cpp14]

This subclause lists the differences between C++ and ISO C++ 2014 (ISO/IEC 14882:2014, Programming Languages — C++), by the chapters of this document.

C.4.1 Clause [lex]: lexical conventions [diff.cpp14.lex]

[lex.phases]
Change: Removal of trigraph support as a required feature.

Rationale: Prevents accidental uses of trigraphs in non-raw string literals and comments.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2014 code that uses trigraphs may not be valid or may have different semantics in this International Standard.
Implementations may choose to translate trigraphs as specified in C++ 2014 if they appear outside of a raw string literal, as part of the implementation-defined mapping from physical source file characters to the basic source character set.
[lex.ppnumber]
Change: pp-number can contain p sign and P sign.

Rationale: Necessary to enable hexadecimal floating literals.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2014 code may fail to compile or produce different results in this International Standard.
Specifically, character sequences like 0p+0 and 0e1_­p+0 are three separate tokens each in C++ 2014, but one single token in this International Standard.
#define F(a) b ## a
int b0p = F(0p+0);  // ill-formed; equivalent to “int b0p = b0p + 0;” in C++ 2014

C.4.2 Clause [expr]: expressions [diff.cpp14.expr]

[expr.post.incr], [expr.pre.incr]
Change: Remove increment operator with bool operand.

Rationale: Obsolete feature with occasionally surprising semantics.

Effect on original feature: A valid C++ 2014 expression utilizing the increment operator on a bool lvalue is ill-formed in this International Standard.
Note that this might occur when the lvalue has a type given by a template parameter.
[expr.new], [expr.delete]
Change: Dynamic allocation mechanism for over-aligned types.

Rationale: Simplify use of over-aligned types.

Effect on original feature: In C++ 2014 code that uses a new-expression to allocate an object with an over-aligned class type, where that class has no allocation functions of its own, ​::​operator new(std​::​size_­t) is used to allocate the memory.
In this International Standard, ​::​operator new(std​::​size_­t, std​::​align_­val_­t) is used instead.

C.4.3 Clause [dcl.dcl]: declarations [diff.cpp14.dcl.dcl]

[dcl.stc]
Change: Removal of register storage-class-specifier.

Rationale: Enable repurposing of deprecated keyword in future revisions of this International Standard.

Effect on original feature: A valid C++ 2014 declaration utilizing the register storage-class-specifier is ill-formed in this International Standard.
The specifier can simply be removed to retain the original meaning.
[dcl.spec.auto]
Change: auto deduction from braced-init-list.

Rationale: More intuitive deduction behavior.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2014 code may fail to compile or may change meaning in this International Standard.
For example:
auto x1{1};    // was std​::​initializer_­list<int>, now int
auto x2{1, 2}; // was std​::​initializer_­list<int>, now ill-formed

C.4.4 Clause [dcl.decl]: declarators [diff.cpp14.decl]

[dcl.fct]
Change: Make exception specifications be part of the type system.

Rationale: Improve type-safety.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2014 code may fail to compile or change meaning in this International Standard:
void g1() noexcept;
void g2();
template<class T> int f(T *, T *);
int x = f(g1, g2);    // ill-formed; previously well-formed
[dcl.init.aggr]
Change: Definition of an aggregate is extended to apply to user-defined types with base classes.

Rationale: To increase convenience of aggregate initialization.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2014 code may fail to compile or produce different results in this International Standard; initialization from an empty initializer list will perform aggregate initialization instead of invoking a default constructor for the affected types:
struct derived;
struct base {
  friend struct derived;
private:
  base();
};
struct derived : base {};

derived d1{};       // Error. The code was well-formed before.
derived d2;         // still OK

C.4.5 Clause [special]: special member functions [diff.cpp14.special]

[class.inhctor.init]
Change: Inheriting a constructor no longer injects a constructor into the derived class.

Rationale: Better interaction with other language features.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2014 code that uses inheriting constructors may not be valid or may have different semantics.
A using-declaration that names a constructor now makes the corresponding base class constructors visible to initializations of the derived class rather than declaring additional derived class constructors.
struct A {
  template<typename T> A(T, typename T::type = 0);
  A(int);
};
struct B : A {
  using A::A;
  B(int);
};
B b(42L); // now calls B(int), used to call B<long>(long),
          // which called A(int) due to substitution failure
          // in A<long>(long).

C.4.6 Clause [temp]: templates [diff.cpp14.temp]

[temp.deduct.type]
Change: Allowance to deduce from the type of a non-type template argument.

Rationale: In combination with the ability to declare non-type template arguments with placeholder types, allows partial specializations to decompose from the type deduced for the non-type template argument.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2014 code may fail to compile or produce different results in this International Standard:
template <int N> struct A;
template <typename T, T N> int foo(A<N> *) = delete;
void foo(void *);
void bar(A<0> *p) {
  foo(p); // ill-formed; previously well-formed
}

C.4.7 Clause [except]: exception handling [diff.cpp14.except]

[except.spec]
Change: Remove dynamic exception specifications.

Rationale: Dynamic exception specifications were a deprecated feature that was complex and brittle in use.
They interacted badly with the type system, which became a more significant issue in this International Standard where (non-dynamic) exception specifications are part of the function type.

Effect on original feature: A valid C++ 2014 function declaration, member function declaration, function pointer declaration, or function reference declaration, if it has a potentially throwing dynamic exception specification, will be rejected as ill-formed in this International Standard.
Violating a non-throwing dynamic exception specification will call terminate rather than unexpected and might not perform stack unwinding prior to such a call.

C.4.8 Clause [library]: library introduction [diff.cpp14.library]

[namespace.future]
Change: New reserved namespaces.

Rationale: Reserve namespaces for future revisions of the standard library that might otherwise be incompatible with existing programs.

Effect on original feature: The global namespaces std followed by an arbitrary sequence of digits is reserved for future standardization.
Valid C++ 2014 code that uses such a top-level namespace, e.g., std2, may be invalid in this International Standard.

C.4.9 Clause [utilities]: general utilities library [diff.cpp14.utilities]

[func.wrap]
Change: Constructors taking allocators removed.

Rationale: No implementation consensus.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2014 code may fail to compile or may change meaning in this International Standard.
Specifically, constructing a std​::​function with an allocator is ill-formed and uses-allocator construction will not pass an allocator to std​::​function constructors in this International Standard.
[util.smartptr.shared]
Change: Different constraint on conversions from unique_­ptr.

Rationale: Adding array support to shared_­ptr, via the syntax shared_­ptr<T[]> and shared_­ptr<T[N]>.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2014code may fail to compile or may change meaning in this International Standard.
For example:
#include <memory>
std::unique_ptr<int[]> arr(new int[1]);
std::shared_ptr<int> ptr(std::move(arr)); // error: int(*)[] is not compatible with int*

C.4.10 Clause [strings]: strings library [diff.cpp14.string]

[basic.string]
Change: Non-const .data() member added.

Rationale: The lack of a non-const .data() differed from the similar member of std​::​vector.
This change regularizes behavior for this International Standard.

Effect on original feature: Overloaded functions which have differing code paths for char* and const char* arguments will execute differently when called with a non-const string's .data() member in this International Standard.
int f(char *) = delete;
int f(const char *);
string s;
int x = f(s.data()); // ill-formed; previously well-formed

C.4.11 Clause [containers]: containers library [diff.cpp14.containers]

[associative.reqmts]
Change: Requirements change:
Rationale: Increase portability, clarification of associative container requirements.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2014 code that attempts to use associative containers having a comparison object with non-const function call operator may fail to compile in this International Standard:
#include <set>

struct compare
{
  bool operator()(int a, int b)
  {
    return a < b;
  }
};

int main() {
  const std::set<int, compare> s;
  s.find(0);
}

C.4.12 Annex [depr]: compatibility features [diff.cpp14.depr]


Change: The class templates auto_­ptr, unary_­function, and binary_­function, the function templates random_­shuffle, and the function templates (and their return types) ptr_­fun, mem_­fun, mem_­fun_­ref, bind1st, and bind2nd are not defined.

Rationale: Superseded by new features.

Effect on original feature: Valid C++ 2014 code that uses these class templates and function templates may fail to compile in this International Standard.

Change: Remove old iostreams members [depr.
ios.
members].

Rationale: Redundant feature for compatibility with pre-standard code has served its time.

Effect on original feature: A valid C++ 2014 program using these identifiers may be ill-formed in this International Standard.

C.5 C standard library [diff.library]

This subclause summarizes the explicit changes in headers, definitions, declarations, or behavior between the C standard library in the C standard and the parts of the C++ standard library that were included from the C standard library.

C.5.1 Modifications to headers [diff.mods.to.headers]

For compatibility with the C standard library, the C++ standard library provides the C headers enumerated in [depr.c.headers], but their use is deprecated in C++.
There are no C++ headers for the C headers <stdatomic.h>, <stdnoreturn.h>, and <threads.h>, nor are the C headers themselves part of C++.
The C++headers <ccomplex> ([depr.ccomplex.syn]) and <ctgmath> ([depr.ctgmath.syn]), as well as their corresponding C headers <complex.h> and <tgmath.h>, do not contain any of the content from the C standard library and instead merely include other headers from the C++ standard library.
The headers <ciso646>, <cstdalign> ([depr.cstdalign.syn]), and <cstdbool> ([depr.cstdbool.syn]) are meaningless in C++.
Use of the C++ headers <ccomplex>, <cstdalign>, <cstdbool>, and <ctgmath> is deprecated ([depr.c.headers]).

C.5.2 Modifications to definitions [diff.mods.to.definitions]

C.5.2.1 Types char16_­t and char32_­t [diff.char16]

The types char16_­t and char32_­t are distinct types rather than typedefs to existing integral types.
The tokens char16_­t and char32_­t are keywords in this International Standard.
They do not appear as macro names defined in <cuchar>.

C.5.2.2 Type wchar_­t [diff.wchar.t]

The type wchar_­t is a distinct type rather than a typedef to an existing integral type.
The token wchar_­t is a keyword in this International Standard.
It does not appear as a type name defined in any of <cstddef>, <cstdlib>, or <cwchar>.

C.5.2.3 Header <assert.h> [diff.header.assert.h]

The token static_­assert is a keyword in this International Standard.
It does not appear as a macro name defined in <cassert>.

C.5.2.4 Header <iso646.h> [diff.header.iso646.h]

The tokens and, and_­eq, bitand, bitor, compl, not_­eq, not, or, or_­eq, xor, and xor_­eq are keywords in this International Standard.
They do not appear as macro names defined in <ciso646>.

C.5.2.5 Header <stdalign.h> [diff.header.stdalign.h]

The token alignas is a keyword in this International Standard ([lex.key]).
It does not appear as a macro name defined in <cstdalign> ([depr.cstdalign.syn]).

C.5.2.6 Header <stdbool.h> [diff.header.stdbool.h]

The tokens bool, true, and false are keywords in this International Standard.
They do not appear as macro names defined in <cstdbool> ([depr.cstdbool.syn]).

C.5.2.7 Macro NULL [diff.null]

The macro NULL, defined in any of <clocale>, <cstddef>, <cstdio>, <cstdlib>, <cstring>, <ctime>, or <cwchar>, is an implementation-defined C++ null pointer constant in this International Standard ([support.types]).

C.5.3 Modifications to declarations [diff.mods.to.declarations]

Header <cstring>: The following functions have different declarations:
Subclause [cstring.syn] describes the changes.
Header <cwchar>: The following functions have different declarations:
Subclause [cwchar.syn] describes the changes.
Header <cstddef> declares the name nullptr_­t in addition to the names declared in <stddef.h> in the C standard library.

C.5.4 Modifications to behavior [diff.mods.to.behavior]

Header <cstdlib>: The following functions have different behavior:
Subclause [support.start.term] describes the changes.
Header <csetjmp>: The following functions have different behavior:
Subclause [csetjmp.syn] describes the changes.

C.5.4.1 Macro offsetof(type, member-designator) [diff.offsetof]

The macro offsetof, defined in <cstddef>, accepts a restricted set of type arguments in this International Standard.
Subclause [support.types.layout] describes the change.

C.5.4.2 Memory allocation functions [diff.malloc]

The functions aligned_­alloc, calloc, malloc, and realloc are restricted in this International Standard.
Subclause [c.malloc] describes the changes.